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Struts Interview Questions

Welcome to our Struts Interview Questions series! If you’re passionate about Java web development, you’ve come to the right place. In this series, we’ll cover key Struts concepts, MVC architecture, ActionForms, validation, integration, and more. Get ready to enhance your Struts knowledge and excel in your interviews!

Table of Contents

What is Struts?

Struts is an open-source framework for developing web applications in Java. It follows the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture, separating an application’s data, user interface, and control logic. Struts provides a structured framework that simplifies the development process by offering components like ActionForms, ActionMappings, and a central configuration file. This helps developers create scalable and maintainable web applications with a focus on reusability and efficient management of user interactions.

Basic Interview Questions

Describe various components of the Struts framework.

The Struts framework comprises several key components that collectively enable the development of robust and organized web applications. These components work in harmony to implement the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture and streamline the development process. Here’s an overview of the main components:

  1. ActionServlet: This is the core controller in Struts. It receives incoming requests from users, processes them, and directs the flow of control to appropriate Action classes.
  2. Action Class: Action classes are Java classes that handle specific user actions or requests. They contain the business logic for processing requests, interacting with the Model, and preparing data for the View.
  3. ActionMapping: ActionMapping is a configuration element that maps an incoming request to a specific Action class. It defines the relationship between URLs and the corresponding Action classes.
  4. ActionForm: ActionForms encapsulate the user input data from the View. They are JavaBeans that hold form data, validate user inputs, and provide a bridge between the View and the Model.
  5. Model: While not a specific component in Struts, the Model represents the application’s business logic, data, and operations. Struts encourages developers to use other technologies (such as EJB, Hibernate, or JDBC) for implementing the Model.
  6. View: Struts supports various View technologies, including JavaServer Pages (JSP), to render the user interface. Views display data from the Model and interact with the user via the Action classes.
  7. Struts Configuration File: The struts-config.xml file is a central configuration file that defines the application’s components, mappings, and settings. It plays a crucial role in configuring the interactions between different parts of the framework.
  8. Validator Framework: Struts provides a validation framework that allows developers to define validation rules for ActionForms. This helps ensure that user inputs are accurate and meet the required criteria.
  9. Message Resources: Message resources enable internationalization and localization by storing user-visible messages in different languages. This allows the application to provide a seamless experience for users from diverse linguistic backgrounds.
  10. Interceptor: Interceptors are a part of the more recent versions of Struts (Struts 2 and later). They intercept the request processing flow and allow developers to perform pre- and post-processing tasks such as logging, validation, or security checks.

What is MVC architecture in the Struts framework?

The MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture in the Struts framework is a design pattern that provides a structured approach to developing web applications. It promotes the separation of an application’s components into three distinct roles, each with a specific responsibility:

  1. Model: The Model represents the application’s business logic, data management, and processing. It encapsulates the core functionality of the application, such as data retrieval, manipulation, and validation. In Struts, the Model often interacts with databases, services, or other data sources to fulfill its role.
  2. View: The View is responsible for presenting the application’s user interface to the end user. It displays data from the Model in a user-friendly format and captures user interactions. In the context of Struts, the View is typically implemented using technologies like JavaServer Pages (JSP) or HTML templates.
  3. Controller: The Controller acts as an intermediary between the Model and the View. It receives user requests, processes them, and determines the appropriate action to take. In Struts, the Controller is represented by Action classes, which handle specific user actions, invoke the Model to process data, and direct the View to display the results.

In the Struts framework, the MVC architecture is implemented as follows:

  • Model: The Model is represented by various components, such as the business logic, data access objects, and services that manage application data and operations. Struts doesn’t enforce a specific Model implementation, allowing developers to choose technologies like Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB), Hibernate, or plain Java objects (POJOs) based on project requirements.
  • View: The View is created using technologies like JSP, which enable developers to generate dynamic content that represents the application’s user interface. Views display data from the Model and receive user input, forwarding relevant information to the Controller for processing.
  • Controller: The Controller is embodied by the ActionServlet, which receives incoming requests and delegates them to specific Action classes based on the configuration defined in the struts-config.xml file. Action classes encapsulate the application’s business logic and handle user interactions, ultimately deciding how to process requests and which Views to display.

What is an interceptor? Also, mention its lifecycle methods.

In the context of web frameworks like Struts 2, an interceptor is a component that intercepts the processing of an incoming request and allows developers to perform pre-processing or post-processing tasks. Interceptors are a powerful feature that enable you to add cross-cutting concerns, such as logging, authentication, validation, or security checks, to your application without cluttering your core business logic.

Interceptors in Struts 2 have a defined lifecycle, consisting of several methods that are executed at different points during the processing of a request. Here’s an overview of the typical lifecycle methods of an interceptor:

  1. init(): This method is called when the interceptor is initialized. It’s usually used to set up any resources or configurations needed for the interceptor to function properly.
  2. destroy(): The destroy method is called when the interceptor is being shut down or released. It’s used to clean up any resources that were allocated during the initialization.
  3. intercept(): This is the main method of the interceptor. It is called for each request that the interceptor is configured to intercept. The intercept method typically performs the pre-processing or post-processing logic, such as validation or logging. It returns a value that indicates whether the request processing should continue or stop.

Here’s a simplified representation of the interceptor’s lifecycle:

|-----------------|        |----------------|       |------------------|
|   Initialization       |   |    Request       |   |    Destruction    |
|       (init)                |     Handling    |   |       (destroy)     |
|-----------------|        |----------------|       |------------------|
                  |                             |
                  v                             v
           +-----------------+          +-----------------+
           |                                             |
           |     intercept() method  |
           |                                             |

What is execAndWait interceptor?

The execAndWait interceptor is a specialized interceptor in the Struts 2 framework that addresses a common usability concern in web applications – providing feedback to users when performing time-consuming operations. It is particularly useful when you want to execute an action that might take a significant amount of time to complete, such as a database query, file upload, or any other operation that may cause the user to wait.

The primary purpose of the execAndWait interceptor is to display a loading or “please wait” page to the user while the long-running action is being processed in the background. This enhances the user experience by preventing the browser from appearing unresponsive and giving users a visual cue that their request is being processed.

Here’s how the execAndWait interceptor works:

  1. When a user triggers an action that is configured to use the execAndWait interceptor, the interceptor intercepts the request.
  2. The interceptor initiates the background processing of the specified action.
  3. While the action is being processed, the interceptor returns control to the user interface, displaying a loading page or an indication that the request is being processed.
  4. Once the background processing is complete, the interceptor forwards the control back to the original action, allowing the results of the operation to be displayed.

This approach effectively decouples the user interface from the time-consuming operation, providing a smoother and more responsive user experience.

To use the execAndWait interceptor, you typically configure it in your Struts 2 action configuration. This configuration involves specifying the waitFor attribute, which defines the action to be executed in the background, and specifying the result to be displayed once the background operation is complete.

What is the first step to start using the Struts application?

The first step to start using the Struts framework for developing web applications is to set up your development environment and create a basic project structure. Here’s an overview of the initial steps:

Environment Setup:

  • Ensure you have Java Development Kit (JDK) installed on your system.
  • Download the Struts framework library (usually a JAR file) from the official Struts website or a reliable source.
  • Set up a web container or application server such as Apache Tomcat, which will be used to deploy and run your Struts applications.

Create a Project Directory:

  • Create a directory for your Struts project. This will serve as the root directory for your application.

Project Structure:

  • Inside your project directory, create subdirectories for organizing different components of your application, such as source code, resources, configuration files, and web content. A common project structure might include directories like src, web, config, and lib.

Add Required Libraries:

  • Place the Struts framework library (JAR file) that you downloaded earlier into the lib directory of your project. You might also need to add other required libraries based on your application’s needs, such as database connectors or logging frameworks.


  • Create a configuration file named struts-config.xml in the config directory. This file will define your application’s components, mappings, and settings, and it’s a crucial part of the Struts configuration.

Web Content:

  • Place your static web resources (HTML, CSS, JavaScript files, etc.) in the web directory. This is where you’ll create user interface components that interact with your Struts actions.

Create Actions and Views:

  • Develop your first Struts action by creating a Java class that extends Action and implements the required methods. This class will handle specific user requests.
  • Create JSP pages in the web directory that correspond to the views of your application. These pages will display data and interact with the user.


  • Package your application by creating a WAR (Web Archive) file that contains your compiled classes, JSP pages, configuration files, and other resources.
  • Deploy the WAR file to your chosen web container or application server (e.g., Apache Tomcat) to make your Struts application accessible through a web browser.

What is the difference between Struts and Struts2?

Here’s a comparison between Struts and Struts 2 in tabular form:

AspectStrutsStruts 2
VersionStruts is the earlier version (1.x).Struts 2 is the newer version (2.x).
ArchitectureFollows the classic MVC pattern.Follows a more flexible and improved MVC architecture.
ConfigurationConfiguration is done through XML files.Configuration is done through annotations, XML, and Java configuration.
Tags and UIRelies heavily on JSP custom tags.Uses JSP and FreeMarker templates for UI.
Action HandlingRequires extending an abstract class.Uses simple POJOs as Action classes.
OGNL IntegrationLimited integration of OGNL (Object-Graph Navigation Language).Deep integration of OGNL for powerful expression language usage.
InterceptorsLimited support for interceptors.Offers a robust and extensive interceptor framework.
TestabilityRelatively harder to unit test due to tight coupling.Easier to unit test due to better separation of concerns.
AJAX SupportLimited built-in support for AJAX.Provides better support for AJAX and modern web technologies.
Convention Over ConfigurationMore configuration required.Embraces convention over configuration for simpler setup.
Dependency InjectionLacks built-in support for dependency injection.Provides built-in support for dependency injection using Spring or Guice.
InternationalizationI18N support requires more manual configuration.Offers improved and simpler internationalization support.
File Upload HandlingHandling file uploads can be complex.Offers a simplified and enhanced file upload handling mechanism.
PerformanceGenerally slower performance.Improved performance and efficiency.

What is ForwardAction in Struts?

In Struts, the term “ForwardAction” does not refer to a built-in or standard component of the framework. Instead, it seems there might be a misunderstanding or confusion. In Struts 1 (often referred to as Struts Classic), actions are typically represented by Java classes that extend the org.apache.struts.action.Action class. These action classes handle specific user requests and perform business logic.

In Struts 1, the concept of “forwarding” is a central part of the framework’s navigation and control flow. Actions often use the org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward class to define where the control should be forwarded after the execution of an action. An ActionForward object specifies a logical name (a forward name) that maps to a particular URL or JSP page, allowing you to control the next step in the user’s interaction.

For example, an action might handle the submission of a form and then use an ActionForward to specify which JSP page should be displayed to the user next.

Here’s a simplified example of how an ActionForward might be used within a Struts 1 action:

import org.apache.struts.action.Action;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping;

public class MyAction extends Action {
    public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                                 HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) {
        // Perform business logic

        // Forward control to a specific JSP page
        return mapping.findForward("success");

In this example, the findForward method is used to retrieve the ActionForward object associated with the logical name “success,” which corresponds to a specific JSP page configured in the struts-config.xml configuration file.

How many servlet controllers does the Struts application use?

In a Struts application, there is typically one main servlet controller that handles incoming requests and manages the flow of control. This central controller is known as the “ActionServlet.” It acts as the front controller for the entire application and is responsible for dispatching requests to appropriate action classes based on the configurations defined in the struts-config.xml file.

The ActionServlet receives incoming requests, determines the corresponding Action class to execute, processes the request, and then forwards control to the appropriate view for rendering the response. The ActionServlet also manages various components of the Struts framework, such as form beans, action mappings, and message resources.

While the ActionServlet is the main servlet controller, it’s important to note that Struts applications might also interact with other servlets or controllers based on specific requirements. For instance, you might integrate additional servlets for handling special tasks like authentication, file uploads, or custom actions.

However, in the core Struts architecture, the ActionServlet is the primary servlet controller responsible for orchestrating the interaction between actions, views, and models within the MVC design pattern.

How can validation errors be displayed on a JSP page?

Displaying validation errors on a JSP page in a Struts application involves capturing validation messages generated during form submission and rendering them for the user to see. Struts provides a mechanism for this by utilizing the ActionErrors and ActionMessages classes. Here’s how you can display validation errors on a JSP page:

  1. In your Struts Action class, when performing form validation and encountering errors, create instances of ActionErrors or ActionMessages:
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionErrors;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMessage;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMessages;
import org.apache.struts.validator.DynaValidatorForm;

public class MyAction extends Action {
    public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                                 HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) {
        DynaValidatorForm myForm = (DynaValidatorForm) form;

        // Perform validation
        ActionErrors errors = new ActionErrors();
        if (myForm.get("someField") == null || myForm.get("someField").equals("")) {
            errors.add("someField", new ActionMessage("error.required", "Some Field"));

        if (!errors.isEmpty()) {
            saveErrors(request, errors);
            return mapping.getInputForward();

        // Perform other actions if validation passes
        return mapping.findForward("success");
  1. In your JSP page, use Struts tags or scriptlets to display the validation errors:
JavaMy Page

My Form

” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<%@ taglib prefix="html" uri="" %>


    My Page


My Form
:errors/> :errors property="someField"/> :form action="/"> :text property="someField" /> :submit value="Submit" /> :form>

In this example:

  • The ActionErrors object is populated with error messages based on validation results.
  • The saveErrors(request, errors) method saves the ActionErrors object in the request for later retrieval.
  • In the JSP, displays global error messages, while displays field-specific error messages for the “someField” property.
  • The tag generates an input field for the “someField” property, and the tag creates a submit button.

How does Struts 2 handle the request?

Struts 2 handles incoming requests by following a well-defined process that involves interceptors, actions, and result types. This process ensures that the request is processed efficiently and the appropriate response is generated for the user. Here’s how Struts 2 handles requests:

  1. Filter or Servlet Mapping:
    When an HTTP request is made to a Struts 2 application, it is first intercepted by the Struts filter or servlet, which is defined in the application’s deployment descriptor (web.xml).
  2. Interceptor Stack:
    Struts 2 employs a chain of interceptors to perform pre-processing and post-processing tasks around the action execution. Interceptors can perform actions such as logging, validation, security checks, and more. These interceptors are configured in the struts.xml configuration file.
  3. Action Mapping:
    The ActionMapper examines the request URL and maps it to a specific action configuration defined in the struts.xml file. This mapping identifies the corresponding action class, method, and other configuration details.
  4. Action Invocation:
    Struts 2 invokes the appropriate action class and executes the specified method. The action class implements business logic, accesses models, and prepares data for presentation.
  5. Value Stacking:
    The framework populates the action’s properties with values from the request (such as form parameters) and other sources like URL parameters, session, or context.
  6. Validation and Conversion:
    If validation is configured, Struts 2 validates the action’s properties based on defined validation rules. It also performs type conversion between incoming data and action properties.
  7. Result Execution:
    After executing the action method, the framework determines the result type to be executed based on the action’s return value. Result types include rendering a JSP page, redirecting to a URL, or other custom behaviors.
  8. Result Processing:
    The result is processed, generating the appropriate response for the user. If the result is a JSP page, the framework forwards the control to the JSP view, allowing it to render the response.
  9. Response Sent:
    The generated response is sent back to the client’s web browser, completing the request-response cycle.

What is ActionForm in Struts?

In Struts, an ActionForm is a Java class that serves as a bridge between the user interface (typically a web form) and the application’s business logic. It is used to capture user input from HTML forms, validate that input, and then pass it to the corresponding action class for processing. ActionForm objects hold the data entered by users, making it available for the application’s actions to work with.

Key characteristics of an ActionForm:

  1. Data Binding: An ActionForm maps form fields to JavaBean properties. When a form is submitted, the data entered by the user is automatically bound to the corresponding properties of the ActionForm instance.
  2. Validation: ActionForm supports basic validation of user input. Developers can define validation rules (required fields, numeric values, etc.) that are automatically applied when data is populated from the form.
  3. Scope Management: ActionForm instances can be stored in different scopes, such as the request, session, or application scope. This allows data to be shared between different actions and views.
  4. Form Bean: In Struts 1 (Classic Struts), an ActionForm is often referred to as a “form bean” because it acts as a Java representation of an HTML form.

Here’s a simple example of an ActionForm implementation:

import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm;

public class LoginForm extends ActionForm {
    private String username;
    private String password;

    // Getters and setters for properties

    public void reset(ActionMapping mapping, HttpServletRequest request) {
        // Reset form fields when the form is loaded or reset
        username = null;
        password = null;

In this example, LoginForm is an ActionForm that corresponds to a login form. The username and password fields are bound to the respective form inputs. The reset method resets the form fields when the form is initially loaded or reset.

The ActionForm is an essential component of Struts 1’s MVC architecture, allowing developers to manage user input and validation effectively. However, it’s important to note that in Struts 2 (the newer version of the framework), the concept of ActionForm has evolved, and form handling is typically done using simple JavaBeans or data transfer objects (DTOs), which offer greater flexibility and separation of concerns.

What is the struts-default package?

The struts-default package in Struts refers to a predefined set of default configurations, resources, and components that are included with the framework. It serves as a foundation for building Struts applications and provides a starting point for developers to create web applications with common functionalities and best practices. The struts-default package contains various configuration settings, action mappings, and resource files that help streamline the development process.

Here are some key aspects of the struts-default package:

  1. Configuration Settings: The package includes default configuration settings for various aspects of the framework, such as the struts-config.xml file, which defines global settings, form beans, action mappings, and message resources. These default settings provide a consistent behavior for the framework.
  2. Predefined Actions: The struts-default package provides a set of predefined actions that perform common tasks, such as handling errors, forwarding requests, and managing application resources. These actions can be used out of the box or extended to fit specific application requirements.
  3. Validation Rules: The package includes default validation rules that can be applied to form fields for common validation scenarios. These rules help ensure that user input is accurate and meets specified criteria.
  4. Tag Libraries and Templates: The struts-default package provides tag libraries and templates for generating HTML forms, links, and other UI components. These tags assist in creating consistent and user-friendly user interfaces.
  5. Resource Bundles: Default resource bundles containing messages and labels are included in the package. These resource bundles enable internationalization and localization of user-facing content.
  6. Interceptors: The package includes default interceptors, which are components that can be used to intercept the processing of actions. These interceptors provide features such as validation, file upload handling, and more.

While the struts-default package provides a convenient starting point for building Struts applications, it’s important to note that it’s not mandatory to use this package. Developers can customize and override the default configurations to tailor the framework to their specific project requirements.

Describe the functionality of the token interceptor in Struts 2.

The Token Interceptor in Struts 2 is a specialized interceptor that helps prevent duplicate form submissions, also known as “double-submit” or “duplicate submission” issues. When a user submits a form, there’s a chance that they might accidentally or intentionally submit the same form multiple times in quick succession, leading to unintended consequences such as duplicate data processing or repeated actions.

The Token Interceptor addresses this issue by generating and managing tokens on the server side. Here’s how it works:

  1. Token Generation: When a form containing the Token Interceptor is rendered on a page, the interceptor generates a unique token and stores it in the user’s session.
  2. Token Inclusion: The generated token is added to the form as a hidden field. This token is unique for each session and helps the server distinguish between different form submissions.
  3. Form Submission: When the user submits the form, the token value is included in the request. The server checks if the token value matches the one stored in the user’s session.
  4. Token Validation: The Token Interceptor validates the submitted token against the one stored in the session. If the tokens match, it allows the action to proceed. If they don’t match, it indicates that the form submission is a potential duplicate.
  5. Token Removal: After validation, the token is removed from the session, preventing its reuse for subsequent requests.

What are tiles in the Struts application?

Tiles is a layout framework used in Struts applications (both Struts 1 and Struts 2) to achieve consistent and reusable page layouts. The Tiles framework allows you to create a consistent look and feel for your application by defining reusable page fragments, which are then combined to create complete web pages.

Here’s how Tiles work:

  1. Definition of Layouts: In a Tiles configuration file (usually named tiles-defs.xml), you define the structure of your web pages using “tiles” or “layout definitions.” These definitions consist of smaller components like headers, footers, sidebars, and content areas.
  2. Reuse of Components: Each component of the page layout is defined separately, and you can reuse them across different pages. For example, you can define a common header and footer, and these components will be consistently used across all pages.
  3. Page Composition: When creating a specific page, you assemble the page by composing it from the predefined components. This composition is done in the configuration file using Tiles tags or attributes.
  4. Rendering: When a request is made for a particular page, the Tiles framework assembles the page by combining the specified components based on the layout definitions. The resulting page is then rendered to the user.

Using Tiles offers several benefits:

  • Consistency: You can ensure a consistent look and feel across your application by reusing the same layout components.
  • Modularity: Changes to layout elements can be made in a single place, improving maintainability.
  • Efficiency: When you need to make a design change, you only need to update the layout definitions rather than modifying each individual page.
  • Code Reusability: Developers can focus on building content-specific pages without worrying about the overall layout.
  • Separation of Concerns: Tiles allow you to separate the structure (layout) from the content (page-specific details), which improves code organization.

List some of the disadvantages of the Struts framework.

While the Struts framework offers several advantages, it’s important to be aware of its potential disadvantages as well. Here are some drawbacks associated with the Struts framework:

  1. Complex Configuration: Struts, especially Struts 1, can involve complex XML configuration files (like struts-config.xml) that might be challenging to understand and maintain, especially for larger applications.
  2. Steep Learning Curve: Struts requires developers to understand various components, such as Action classes, ActionForms (in Struts 1), and configuration details. This learning curve can be steep for beginners.
  3. Verbose Code: Struts 1, in particular, tends to generate verbose and boilerplate code due to its heavy XML configuration and ActionForm classes.
  4. Limited Flexibility: Struts 1 is often criticized for its limited flexibility in terms of customization. Developers might find it challenging to implement certain features without resorting to workarounds.
  5. Statelessness: Struts, like many other MVC frameworks, is based on the stateless HTTP protocol. This can lead to challenges in managing user state and session data for more complex applications.
  6. Performance Overhead: Struts 1, being an older framework, might introduce some performance overhead due to its architecture and heavy use of servlets and filters.
  7. Lack of Modern Features: Struts 1 lacks some modern features found in newer frameworks, such as dependency injection and advanced validation mechanisms.
  8. Security Concerns: Struts 1 has faced security vulnerabilities in the past, which might be a concern if you’re maintaining legacy applications that use this version.
  9. Limited AJAX Support: Struts 1 has limited built-in support for AJAX interactions, which might be insufficient for modern web applications.
  10. Maintenance of Legacy Applications: If you’re dealing with legacy applications built on Struts 1, finding developers with expertise in the framework could be challenging due to its declining popularity.

What is DynaActionForm?

In Struts 1, a DynaActionForm is a specialized type of ActionForm that allows you to handle dynamic form data without explicitly defining Java properties for each form field. It provides a way to work with form data where the number of fields or their names might vary, making it useful when dealing with flexible or dynamic forms.

Here’s how the DynaActionForm works:

  1. Dynamic Properties: Instead of defining specific properties for each form field, you create a DynaActionForm that can handle any form data. You define a set of dynamic properties that correspond to the form fields.
  2. Accessing Form Data: You access form data using the property names, similar to accessing properties of a JavaBean. The property name corresponds to the name attribute of the HTML form input field.
  3. No Need for Setter/Getter Methods: Unlike regular ActionForm properties, you don’t need to define getter and setter methods for each field. The DynaActionForm handles property access and manipulation internally.
  4. Dynamic Validation: You can apply validation rules to the dynamic properties using the built-in validation framework in Struts 1. This allows you to ensure data integrity even when dealing with dynamic form fields.

Here’s a simplified example of how you might use a DynaActionForm in Struts 1:

import org.apache.struts.action.DynaActionForm;

public class DynamicForm extends DynaActionForm {
    // No need to define specific properties
    // Access dynamic properties directly using form.getFieldName()

What are ActionServlets?

In the Struts framework (specifically Struts 1), an ActionServlet is a special servlet that acts as the central controller for handling incoming requests and managing the flow of the application. It’s the entry point for all requests in a Struts application and plays a key role in managing the execution of actions and interactions between various components.

Here’s how an ActionServlet works:

  1. Request Handling: When a user sends a request to the web application, the servlet container (e.g., Apache Tomcat) routes the request to the ActionServlet based on the URL mapping defined in the web.xml configuration.
  2. Action Selection: The ActionServlet determines which Action class to invoke based on the request URL or other criteria defined in the struts-config.xml configuration file.
  3. Action Execution: The selected Action class is instantiated, and its execute() method is called. This method contains the application logic for processing the user’s request.
  4. Data Binding: The Action class often retrieves data from the user’s request, processes it, and prepares data for the view. It might also interact with business logic and databases.
  5. View Rendering: After the Action class has executed, the ActionServlet forwards the request to a view (usually a JSP) to render the response. The view accesses the data prepared by the Action class to generate the HTML that is sent back to the user’s browser.
  6. Response Sending: The ActionServlet sends the rendered HTML back to the user’s browser as the response.

Why is ActionServlet singleton in Struts?

In Struts 1, the ActionServlet is designed to be a singleton, meaning that there is only one instance of the ActionServlet class throughout the entire lifecycle of the application. This design choice was made to address various architectural and performance considerations:

  1. Centralized Control: The ActionServlet acts as the central controller for handling incoming requests and managing the flow of the application. As a singleton, it provides a single point of entry for all requests, ensuring consistent behavior and control.
  2. Resource Efficiency: Creating and destroying servlet instances can be resource-intensive. By maintaining a single instance of the ActionServlet, the overhead of object creation and destruction is minimized, which can lead to better performance and reduced memory usage.
  3. Configuration Sharing: Struts 1 relies heavily on XML configuration files, such as struts-config.xml. These configurations are read and processed when the ActionServlet is initialized. By keeping the ActionServlet as a singleton, the configuration information is shared across all requests, avoiding redundant parsing of configuration files.
  4. State Management: The ActionServlet is not designed to store user-specific data or request state. Instead, it manages the flow and dispatches requests to appropriate components. This design aligns well with the singleton pattern, where a single instance focuses on coordination rather than maintaining individual states.
  5. Simplicity: Keeping the ActionServlet as a singleton simplifies the architectural model and ensures that all requests are consistently handled without the need for managing multiple instances.

When to use SwitchAction class?

In the context of Struts 1 (Classic Struts), the SwitchAction class is not a standard or built-in class provided by the framework. Therefore, it’s possible that there might be a misunderstanding or confusion regarding the term “SwitchAction.” As of my knowledge cutoff date in September 2021, there is no widely recognized or official SwitchAction class within Struts 1.

If you are referring to a custom class or implementation named “SwitchAction,” it’s essential to provide more context or details about its purpose, usage, and any specific scenarios in which it might be used. Without further information, I am unable to provide specific guidance on the usage of a class named “SwitchAction” within Struts 1.

It’s worth noting that Struts 1 is an older technology, and developers often work with Action classes (which extend org.apache.struts.action.Action) to handle specific user requests and perform business logic. If you have a specific use case or scenario in mind, please provide more information so that I can offer tailored advice or suggestions based on the information available up to September 2021.

How to handle exceptions in Struts2?

In Struts 2, handling exceptions is an essential part of creating robust and user-friendly web applications. Struts 2 provides mechanisms to handle exceptions gracefully and provide appropriate error messages to users. Here’s how you can handle exceptions in Struts 2:

Global Exception Handling: Struts 2 allows you to define global exception mappings in your struts.xml configuration file. This is useful for handling exceptions that might occur across multiple actions. You can specify how to handle exceptions by specifying result types, forwarding to specific error pages, or executing specific actions.

XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
    <exception-mapping exception="java.lang.Exception" result="error-page" />

Action-Specific Exception Handling: For exceptions specific to a particular action, you can handle them directly within the action class. You can catch exceptions and return a specific result type that corresponds to an error page or a customized error message.

public class MyAction extends ActionSupport {
    public String execute() {
        try {
            // ... your action logic ...
        } catch (Exception e) {
            addActionError("An error occurred: " + e.getMessage());
            return "error-page";
        return "success";

Error Pages and Result Types: You can define result types in Struts 2 that correspond to error pages. When an exception occurs, you can return the result type associated with an error page to display relevant error information.

XML/error.jsp ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<result name="error-page" type="dispatcher">/error.jspresult>

ActionError and ActionMessage: Struts 2 provides the ActionError and ActionMessage classes to store error and informational messages. These can be used to display messages in your JSP views.

addActionError("An error occurred: " + e.getMessage());
addActionMessage("Operation successful.");

Exception Handling Interceptor: Struts 2 has an exception handling interceptor called exception that can be configured to handle exceptions at the global level. It can redirect to error pages or execute specific actions based on exception types.

XMLtrue ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<interceptor-ref name="exception">
    <param name="logEnabled">trueparam>

What are OGNL and ValueStack in Struts?

In Struts 2, both OGNL (Object-Graph Navigation Language) and ValueStack play important roles in managing and manipulating data within the framework.

  1. OGNL (Object-Graph Navigation Language): OGNL is a powerful expression language that allows you to access and manipulate properties of objects in a more concise and expressive manner. It’s used extensively in Struts 2 for various tasks, such as accessing properties, calling methods, and performing dynamic operations on objects.Key features of OGNL:
    • Property Access: You can access properties of Java objects using simple expressions, such as to access the name property of a Person object.
    • Method Invocation: You can call methods on objects using OGNL expressions, like user.getName().
    • Math and Logic: OGNL supports basic math and logic operations, allowing you to perform calculations and comparisons.
    • Collection Navigation: OGNL can traverse collections and arrays to access specific elements or perform operations on them.
  2. ValueStack: The ValueStack is a key data structure in Struts 2 that manages the context and values associated with the current request. It’s essentially a stack of contexts, with each context representing a layer of data accessible in a specific scope. The ValueStack facilitates the use of OGNL expressions to access and manipulate these values.The ValueStack includes:
    • Action Context: The top context in the ValueStack is usually the action context, containing the properties and values related to the current action.
    • Request and Session Scopes: The ValueStack can also include values from the request, session, and application scopes, making these values accessible to OGNL expressions.
    • Local Values: Values pushed onto the stack within custom interceptors or tags.
    This allows developers to access values from different scopes using OGNL expressions without needing to know the exact location of those values.

State the difference between simple HTML tags and struts-specific HTML tags.

Here’s a concise comparison between simple HTML tags and Struts-specific HTML tags:

AspectSimple HTML TagsStruts-Specific HTML Tags
PurposeBasic HTML elements for structuring and styling web content.Designed for generating dynamic content and integrating with Struts features.
RenderingRendered directly as-is by the browser.Interpreted by Struts tags and processed on the server before rendering.

, , , etc.
, ,
, , etc.
Data BindingNo direct data binding support.Often bind to Struts action properties via the ValueStack.
Dynamic ContentRequires scripting or JavaScript for dynamic content.Enables dynamic content through integration with OGNL and ValueStack.
UI ComponentsLimited support for creating complex UI elements.Provides specialized tags for forms, dropdowns, radio buttons, etc.
CustomizationLimited customization without additional scripting.Highly customizable with attributes and parameters.
Separation of ConcernsMixing HTML and logic might lead to code complexity.Encourages separation of UI logic and presentation from business logic.
Tag LibrariesHTML tag libraries are not typically extendable.Struts tag libraries can be extended with custom tags and attributes.
Integration with FrameworkNo inherent integration with backend frameworks.Designed to work seamlessly with Struts features and actions.
Learning CurveFamiliar to web developers but might require additional scripting.Requires understanding of Struts tags and their functionalities.

What is the Resource bundle properties document?

A resource bundle properties document, often referred to as a properties file, is a text file used to store localized messages and other configuration settings in a Java application. It’s commonly used for internationalization and localization purposes, allowing developers to provide different versions of the application in multiple languages and adapt to various cultural conventions.

Key points about resource bundle properties documents:

  • Format: The file has a .properties extension and follows a simple key-value format. Each line consists of a property key, followed by an equals sign (=), and the corresponding value.
  • Key-Value Pairs: Each property key uniquely identifies a piece of information, such as a message or a configuration setting. The value associated with the key provides the content or configuration value.
  • Localization: Developers create separate properties files for each language or locale. These files contain translated messages and localized content to cater to different audiences.
  • Fallback Mechanism: If a specific translation is missing for a given locale, the framework can fall back to a default or generic message stored in a base properties file.
  • Resource Bundles: A resource bundle is a collection of related properties files for different locales. It enables the application to load the appropriate properties file based on the user’s locale.
  • Accessing Properties: In Java applications, developers access the values from resource bundles using APIs like ResourceBundle class. The values are retrieved based on the provided property keys.
  • Internationalization (I18n): Resource bundles facilitate internationalization efforts by enabling the application to present content in different languages and formats.

What happens when a client browser issues an HTTP request?

When a client browser issues an HTTP request to a web server, a series of steps occur to retrieve and deliver the requested content. Here’s a concise overview of the process:

  1. DNS Resolution:
    • The browser looks up the domain name (URL) in the Domain Name System (DNS) to find the IP address of the web server.
  2. TCP Connection:
    • The browser establishes a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection with the web server using the obtained IP address and port number (usually port 80 for HTTP).
  3. HTTP Request:
    • The browser sends an HTTP request to the web server.
    • The request includes the HTTP method (GET, POST, etc.), the requested path, query parameters, headers, and cookies.
  4. Web Server Processing:
    • The web server receives the request and processes it.
    • It may interpret the requested URL, handle session management, and perform security checks.
  5. Application Server (Optional):
    • If the web server is not directly serving the content, it may forward the request to an application server where the web application resides.
  6. Processing the Request:
    • The web server or application server processes the request based on the URL and parameters.
    • It may interact with databases, perform business logic, and generate dynamic content.
  7. HTTP Response:
    • The server generates an HTTP response.
    • The response includes status codes, headers (including cookies and caching instructions), and the content.
  8. Data Transmission:
    • The server sends the HTTP response back to the client browser over the established TCP connection.
  9. Browser Rendering:
    • The browser receives the response and processes the HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and other resources.
    • It renders the content on the user’s screen, displaying the requested web page.
  10. External Resources:
    • The browser may issue additional requests for external resources like images, stylesheets, and scripts referenced in the HTML.
  11. Page Interaction:
    • The user interacts with the displayed web page, clicking links or submitting forms, which triggers further HTTP requests as needed.
  12. Connection Closure:
    • Once all resources are fetched and rendered, the connection between the browser and the server is closed, or it may be reused for subsequent requests.

Which file does the controller use to get request routing mapping information?

In Struts (Struts 1), the controller uses the struts-config.xml file to get request routing mapping information. The struts-config.xml is an XML configuration file that defines how incoming requests should be mapped to specific action classes, which actions should be executed, and how the results should be handled.

Key points about struts-config.xml:

  • Mapping Information: It contains configuration elements that define the mapping between URLs, request paths, and corresponding action classes.
  • Action Mappings: Action mappings define which action class should be invoked for a particular URL pattern or request path.
  • Form Beans: It can also define form beans (often subclasses of ActionForm) that handle data submitted by HTML forms.
  • Forwards and Results: The file specifies how different outcomes or results of an action should be handled, such as forwarding to JSPs or other views.
  • Global Settings: It can contain global settings for exceptions handling, message resources, and more.
  • Interceptors: Some versions of Struts also allow configuring interceptors that affect the processing of actions.

What is an interceptor stack?

In Struts 2, an interceptor stack refers to a sequence of interceptors that are applied to a particular action during its processing. Each interceptor in the stack performs specific tasks before and after the action execution. Interceptor stacks are defined in the configuration and allow developers to create reusable sets of interceptors for different actions.

Key points about interceptor stacks in Struts 2:

  • Order of Execution: Interceptors are executed in the order they are defined in the stack. The request flows through each interceptor before reaching the action and then again after the action execution.
  • Pre-processing and Post-processing: Interceptors handle tasks like parameter population, validation, security checks, logging, and more. They can modify the request, response, or the action’s properties.
  • Reusability: By defining interceptor stacks, developers can create common sets of interceptors that can be applied to multiple actions, promoting code reusability and consistent behavior.
  • Custom Stacks: Developers can define their own custom interceptor stacks tailored to specific needs, assembling a combination of built-in and custom interceptors.
  • Configuration: Interceptor stacks are typically configured in the struts.xml configuration file. Actions reference these stacks, determining which interceptors are applied.
  • Default Stack: Struts 2 comes with a default interceptor stack that includes commonly used interceptors like parameter handling, validation, and exception handling.

What is the difference between field and plain validators?

Here’s a comparison between field validators and plain validators in Struts 2 in tabular form:

AspectField ValidatorsPlain Validators
PurposeValidate individual form fields.Validate a group of related fields or the entire form.
UsageApplied to specific fields using annotations or XML.Applied globally to actions using annotations or XML.
ScopeLimited to validating a single field.Can encompass multiple fields or the entire form.
Annotation/Tag@FieldValidator annotation or tag.@Validator annotation or tag.
ConfigurationConfigured individually per field.Configured at the action level or globally.
Cross-Field ChecksSuitable for validating single-field constraints.Suitable for validating multiple fields together.
Error MessagesCan provide specific error messages for each field.Generally provides more general error messages.
ReusabilityCan be reused for similar field validations.Can be reused for similar validation scenarios.
Use CasesEnsuring specific fields are non-empty, within a certain length, etc.Checking for consistency between multiple fields (e.g., password confirmation).
Custom ValidationSuitable for custom validations on specific fields.Suitable for custom validations involving multiple fields.

What is meant by the validate() and reset() function?

In the context of Struts 1, the validate() and reset() functions are methods that can be implemented in an ActionForm subclass to perform validation and reset form data, respectively.

  1. validate() Function:
    • The validate() function is used to perform validation on the user-submitted form data.
    • It’s called during the form data population process before the associated action’s execute() method is invoked.
    • Inside the validate() function, you can add validation logic to check the correctness of user input, validate fields, and add error messages to the ActionErrors object if validation fails.
    • If validation errors are found, they will be displayed to the user.

Example of validate() function:

public class MyForm extends ActionForm {
    private String username;
    // other properties and getters/setters
    public ActionErrors validate(ActionMapping mapping, HttpServletRequest request) {
        ActionErrors errors = new ActionErrors();
        if (username == null || username.trim().isEmpty()) {
            errors.add("username", new ActionMessage("error.username.required"));
        // ... other validation checks
        return errors;
  1. reset() Function:
    • The reset() function is used to reset the form data to initial values before presenting the form to the user.
    • It’s called when the form is first displayed or when a user clicks a “reset” button on the form.
    • Inside the reset() function, you can set default values for form fields.

Example of reset() function:

public class MyForm extends ActionForm {
    private String username = ""; // Default value
    public void reset(ActionMapping mapping, HttpServletRequest request) {
        username = ""; // Reset to default value

What do you mean by DynaActionForm?

In Struts (Struts 1), a DynaActionForm is a class that allows you to create dynamic form beans without explicitly defining Java classes for each form. It provides a flexible way to handle form data when the structure of the form is not known at compile time.

Key points about DynaActionForm:

  • Dynamic Properties: It allows you to access and manipulate form data using property names as strings, rather than defining explicit Java properties.
  • Flexible Data Binding: You can dynamically add and remove properties from the form, making it suitable for scenarios where form structures change frequently.
  • Indexed Properties: It supports indexed properties for handling data from arrays or collections of form fields.
  • Simpler Configuration: Compared to traditional ActionForm classes, you don’t need to define each property in a Java class.

Here’s a simplified example:

public class MyAction extends Action {
    public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
            HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {
        DynaActionForm dynaForm = (DynaActionForm) form;
        String username = (String) dynaForm.get("username");
        // ...

Why do we need Struts?

We need Struts, or any web application framework for that matter, to simplify and streamline the process of building web applications. Here are some reasons why Struts, specifically, is beneficial:

  1. Structured Development: Struts enforces the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern, which separates concerns like data handling, business logic, and presentation. This structured approach makes the codebase more organized and maintainable.
  2. Code Reusability: Struts promotes reusability by providing a standardized way to handle actions, forms, and validations. This reduces the need to reinvent the wheel and speeds up development.
  3. Consistent UI: Struts’ tag libraries help generate consistent and well-formatted user interfaces without the need for manual HTML coding. This ensures a unified look and feel across the application.
  4. Form Validation: Struts offers built-in form validation, helping to ensure that data entered by users is accurate and meets predefined criteria. This enhances data quality and minimizes errors.
  5. Internationalization: Struts supports internationalization and localization, allowing applications to be adapted for different languages and regions without major code changes.
  6. Configurability: The framework allows developers to configure application behavior through XML files, reducing the need to modify code for changes in behavior or mappings.
  7. Error Handling: Struts provides consistent error handling mechanisms, making it easier to manage exceptions and error messages throughout the application.
  8. Extensibility: Developers can extend Struts’ functionality by creating custom classes, interceptors, and tag libraries to meet specific project requirements.
  9. Testing: Struts’ modular design and separation of concerns facilitate testing at various levels, including unit testing and automated testing of individual components.
  10. Community and Resources: Being widely adopted, Struts has a large community of developers, which means a wealth of documentation, tutorials, and third-party tools are available to support developers.
  11. Security: Struts provides features for handling security concerns like authentication and authorization, helping developers build more secure applications.

What is the ForwardAction used for?

In Struts (Struts 1), the ForwardAction is used to programmatically forward the control from one action to another within the same application. It’s often used to direct the flow of a user’s interaction from one page to another, typically after some processing has occurred.

Key points about ForwardAction:

  • Navigation: It’s primarily used for navigation purposes within the application.
  • Dynamic Forwarding: Unlike traditional links or form submissions, ForwardAction allows you to forward to another action dynamically based on the logic within the current action.
  • Data Transfer: It can be used to carry data from one action to another, allowing information to be shared between different parts of the application.
  • Configuration: You configure the ForwardAction by specifying the target action in the struts-config.xml configuration file or annotations.

Example struts-config.xml configuration:

XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<action path="/goToNextPage" type="org.apache.struts.actions.ForwardAction">
    <forward name="success" path="/nextPage.jsp" />

In the example above, when the /goToNextPage action is executed, it will forward control to the /nextPage.jsp page, effectively navigating the user to the next page of the application.

What are the uses of ActionClass?

In Struts (Struts 1), an Action class plays a pivotal role in the web application’s architecture. It encapsulates the business logic and processing for a specific user action, such as submitting a form or clicking a link. Here are some of the key uses and purposes of an Action class:

  1. Handling User Requests: An Action class is responsible for processing user requests. It acts as a controller component that receives user input and initiates the appropriate business logic.
  2. Business Logic: The Action class encapsulates the business logic related to the user’s action. This can include interacting with databases, performing calculations, calling services, and making decisions based on user input.
  3. Data Population: It retrieves and populates data required for rendering the view. The Action class fetches data from the model and prepares it for presentation in the view.
  4. Form Processing: For form submissions, the Action class processes the data submitted by the user. It validates the data, performs necessary transformations, and updates the model if needed.
  5. Interaction with Model: The Action class interacts with the application’s model layer, which typically involves retrieving, updating, or deleting data from the database or other data sources.
  6. Forwarding and Redirecting: After processing, the Action class can forward control to a view (JSP) for rendering the response. It’s responsible for deciding which view to display and, optionally, passing data to the view.
  7. Exception Handling: The Action class can handle exceptions that occur during processing. It’s responsible for catching exceptions, generating appropriate error messages, and deciding how to proceed.
  8. Authorization and Security: The Action class can implement security checks to ensure that users have the necessary permissions to perform certain actions.
  9. Parameter Handling: It can access parameters sent by the user in the request, which can be used to determine the specific action to take or to process input data.
  10. Dependency Injection: In some cases, the Action class may receive services or components injected by an IoC (Inversion of Control) container, enabling better separation of concerns and testability.
  11. Interceptors: Action classes can be intercepted by custom interceptors, allowing you to apply cross-cutting concerns like logging, validation, or security at a global level.

How can you use the resource bundle properties file for Struts Validation framework?

In Struts, you can use resource bundle properties files to provide localized error messages and labels for the Struts Validation framework. This approach allows you to display user-friendly messages in different languages and regions. Here’s how you can use resource bundles for Struts Validation:

  1. Create Resource Bundle Properties Files:
    • Create a separate properties file for each locale you want to support. For example, for the default locale and for Spanish.
    • Define error messages and labels as key-value pairs in the properties files. Use keys that correspond to the validation rules.


<code>requiredField = {0} is required. = {0} is not a valid email address.code>
  1. Configure Resource Bundles:
    • In your struts-config.xml configuration file, define the location of the resource bundle(s).

Example struts-config.xml configuration:

requiredField = {0} is required. = {0} is not a valid email address.
  1. Use Resource Bundle Keys in Validation XML:
    • In your validation XML files, use the keys from the resource bundles for error messages and labels.

Example validation XML:

XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<plug-in className="org.apache.struts.validator.ValidatorPlugIn">
    <set-property property="pathnames"
        value="/WEB-INF/ValidationMessages" />
  1. Use Labels from Resource Bundles:
    • You can also use resource bundles for labels by specifying them using tags in your validation XML.

Example usage in JSP:

XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
    <form name="myForm">
        <field property="username" depends="required">
            <arg key="username.label" />
            <msg key="requiredField" />
        <field property="email" depends="required,email">
            <arg key="email.label" />
            <msg key="requiredField" />
            <msg key="" />

What is the difference between Apache Struts and Jakarta Struts?

“Apache Struts” and “Jakarta Struts” are two terms that refer to the same framework. “Jakarta Struts” was the original name of the framework, and it was developed under the Jakarta Project of the Apache Software Foundation. Later on, the “Jakarta” prefix was dropped, and the framework became known simply as “Apache Struts.” There is no functional difference between the two; they represent the same framework.

Here’s a comparison between the terms “Apache Struts” and “Jakarta Struts” in tabular form:

AspectApache StrutsJakarta Struts
NameThe current and commonly used name for the framework.The original name of the framework when it was developed under the Jakarta Project.
Project OriginDeveloped under the Jakarta Project of the Apache Software Foundation.Developed under the Jakarta Project of the Apache Software Foundation.
Common UsageWidely used term to refer to the Struts framework.An older term used to refer to the Struts framework.
Framework VersionUsed to refer to versions of the Struts framework after the name change.Used to refer to versions of the Struts framework before the name change.
Historical ContextReflects the evolution of the framework’s name and branding.Reflects the original branding and naming decisions when the framework was first introduced.

Describe the two types of Form beans.

In Struts (Struts 1), there are two main types of Form beans: ActionForm and DynaActionForm. These Form beans are used to encapsulate and manage user input and provide a way to interact with the data entered in forms on web pages. Here’s a description of each type:

  1. ActionForm:
    • An ActionForm is a Java class that represents a form on a web page. It acts as a bridge between the user input entered in the form and the server-side processing.
    • Each field in the form corresponds to a property in the ActionForm class. These properties are usually private fields with associated getter and setter methods.
    • The ActionForm class can include validation logic to ensure that the user input is correct and meets the required criteria.
    • ActionForm instances are automatically populated with form data when a request is submitted, and they are available to the associated Action class for processing.
    • This type of Form bean provides a strongly typed approach where the fields and their data types are well-defined in the Java class.
  2. DynaActionForm:
    • A DynaActionForm is a dynamic form bean that doesn’t require explicitly defining Java classes for each form. Instead, it allows you to work with form data using property names as strings.
    • It provides flexibility when the form structure is not known at compile time. You can add and remove properties dynamically.
    • Fields are accessed and manipulated using strings as keys, rather than using defined Java properties.
    • DynaActionForm is suitable when you need to handle varying or unknown form structures.
    • While it offers flexibility, it may come with some limitations in terms of type safety and code organization compared to the strongly typed ActionForm.

Here’s a simplified example of both types:

ActionForm Example:

public class LoginForm extends ActionForm {
    private String username;
    private String password;

    public String getUsername() {
        return username;

    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;

    // ... Similarly, for password and other fields

DynaActionForm Example:

public class DynamicForm extends DynaActionForm {
    // No defined fields in the class, properties are added dynamically

How to migrate an application from ‘Struts 1’ to ‘Struts 2’?

Migrating an application from Struts 1 to Struts 2 involves several steps to adapt the application’s architecture and code to the new framework. Here’s a general roadmap for migrating an application from Struts 1 to Struts 2:

  1. Understand Struts 2 Concepts:
    • Familiarize yourself with the key concepts and architecture of Struts 2, as it’s different from Struts 1.
  2. Assessment and Planning:
    • Analyze the existing Struts 1 application to understand its structure, components, and dependencies.
    • Identify the features and functionalities that need to be migrated.
    • Plan the migration strategy, considering whether to migrate the entire application at once or in phases.
  3. Set Up a Struts 2 Environment:
    • Set up a Struts 2 environment with the necessary libraries and configurations.
  4. Update Dependencies:
    • Update any third-party libraries and dependencies used in the Struts 1 application to their compatible versions for Struts 2.
  5. Migrate Actions and Forms:
    • Rewrite or refactor the existing Struts 1 Action classes to Struts 2 Action classes.
    • Update or rewrite the form beans (ActionForms) to Struts 2 models.
  6. Update Configuration Files:
    • Modify or create Struts 2 configuration files (struts.xml) based on the Struts 1 configuration.
    • Update action mappings, interceptors, and result configurations to match the Struts 2 structure.
  7. Migrate JSP Pages:
    • Update JSP pages to use Struts 2 tags and syntax instead of Struts 1 tags.
    • Replace Struts 1 tags with Struts 2 tags like
      , , etc.
  8. Migrate Validation:
    • If your Struts 1 application uses validation, adapt the validation rules and error messages to the Struts 2 validation framework.
  9. Migrate Custom Components:
    • If your Struts 1 application has custom components or tags, update or rewrite them for Struts 2.
  10. Testing and Debugging:
    • Thoroughly test the migrated components and functionality to ensure they work as expected in the Struts 2 environment.
    • Debug any issues that arise during testing.
  11. Refactor and Optimize:
    • Use the migration as an opportunity to refactor and optimize the codebase. Remove any outdated or unnecessary code.
  12. Update Documentation:
    • Update any documentation, user guides, and training materials to reflect the changes introduced by the migration.
  13. Deployment and Monitoring:
    • Deploy the migrated application to a test environment for further testing and user acceptance.
    • Monitor the application closely after deployment to catch any unexpected issues.
  14. User Training and Support:
    • Provide user training if the user interface has significantly changed due to the migration.
    • Offer support to users and address any questions or concerns.

Name the different technologies for the View Layer.

In web application development, the view layer is responsible for presenting data to users in a user-friendly and visually appealing manner. There are several technologies and approaches that can be used for the view layer in various web frameworks. Here are some of them:

  1. HTML: HyperText Markup Language is the fundamental language for creating web pages. It defines the structure and layout of content on a web page.
  2. CSS: Cascading Style Sheets is used to control the visual appearance of HTML elements, including layout, colors, fonts, and more.
  3. JavaScript: JavaScript is a scripting language used to add interactivity to web pages. It can manipulate the DOM (Document Object Model), handle user input, and perform client-side processing.
  4. JSP (JavaServer Pages): JSP is a technology that enables developers to embed Java code within HTML pages. It’s often used with Java EE applications to dynamically generate HTML content.
  5. Thymeleaf: Thymeleaf is a modern server-side Java template engine that integrates seamlessly with Spring Framework. It allows developers to create dynamic web pages using HTML templates and server-side logic.
  6. Freemarker: Freemarker is another template engine similar to Thymeleaf. It’s often used in Java applications to generate dynamic content.
  7. React: React is a popular JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It’s commonly used for creating dynamic, single-page applications (SPAs).
  8. Angular: Angular is a comprehensive JavaScript framework for building web applications, providing tools for creating dynamic views, managing data, and handling user interactions.
  9. Vue.js: Vue.js is a progressive JavaScript framework that focuses on building user interfaces. It’s known for its simplicity and ease of integration with existing projects.
  10. Handlebars: Handlebars is a templating engine that simplifies the process of rendering dynamic content in web applications. It’s often used with JavaScript.
  11. Razor: Razor is a syntax used in ASP.NET applications for creating dynamic content. It supports both C# and VB.NET code.
  12. Template Engines: Various programming languages and frameworks offer template engines that help generate dynamic content. Examples include Jinja2 for Python and Smarty for PHP.

Explain the complete Struts Validator Framework.

The Struts Validator Framework, a part of Apache Struts (Struts 1), is designed to handle form validation and error handling in web applications. It provides a way to define validation rules for form input and automatically validates user-submitted data, ensuring that it meets specific criteria. This helps maintain data integrity and improve the user experience. Here’s an overview of the complete Struts Validator Framework:

  1. Validation Rules Configuration:
    • Validation rules are defined in XML configuration files. These rules specify the form fields to validate, the validation constraints, and the error messages to display when validation fails.
    • The configuration files are typically named validator-rules.xml and validation.xml.
  2. Form Validation:
    • When a form is submitted, the Struts Validator Framework automatically validates the user input against the defined validation rules.
    • Each form field can have multiple validation constraints such as required, email format, length limits, regular expressions, etc.
  3. Error Messages:
    • The framework allows you to define error messages for each validation constraint. These messages are displayed when validation fails, helping users understand what went wrong.
  4. Error Handling:
    • When validation fails, the framework automatically generates error messages based on the configured messages and adds them to the ActionErrors object.
    • These error messages can be displayed to the user on the view layer (JSP) to highlight the issues with the submitted data.
  5. ActionForm Integration:
    • The validation framework is tightly integrated with Struts’ ActionForm classes. The form beans (ActionForms) define the properties that correspond to form fields and their data types.
  6. Validation Tags and Actions:
    • Struts provides custom validation tags and actions that simplify the integration of form validation into JSP pages and Action classes.
  7. Programmatic Validation:
    • In addition to XML configuration, you can also perform programmatic validation using custom validation classes and logic.
  8. Custom Validation:
    • You can create custom validation routines by implementing Java classes that extend the org.apache.struts.validator.FieldValidator class.
    • Custom validators are useful for scenarios where the built-in validation constraints don’t cover your specific needs.
  9. Client-Side Validation:
    • The framework supports generating JavaScript code for client-side validation. This helps improve the user experience by validating data before it’s submitted to the server.
  10. Internationalization and Localization:
    • The Struts Validator Framework supports internationalization and localization by allowing you to define error messages in multiple languages.

What do you mean by Dispatch action and how do we use it?

In Struts (Struts 1), a DispatchAction is a type of Action class that allows you to group related actions into a single class. It’s designed to handle multiple actions within a single Java class, reducing the need to create a separate Action class for each action. DispatchAction is useful when multiple actions share a common processing logic but have different functionalities.

Here’s how you can use DispatchAction:

  1. Creating the DispatchAction Class:
    • Create a Java class that extends org.apache.struts.actions.DispatchAction.
    • Define public methods in the class for each distinct action you want to handle. These methods will be invoked when the corresponding action is requested.
public class MyDispatchAction extends DispatchAction {

    public ActionForward action1(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                                 HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {
        // Handle action 1 logic
        return mapping.findForward("success1");

    public ActionForward action2(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                                 HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {
        // Handle action 2 logic
        return mapping.findForward("success2");

    // ... Define more action methods as needed
  1. Configuring the DispatchAction:
    • In your struts-config.xml configuration file, define an Action mapping for your DispatchAction class.
XML” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<action path="/myDispatchAction" type="com.example.MyDispatchAction" scope="request" />
  1. Using DispatchAction in JSP:
    • In your JSP page, use links or buttons to trigger the different actions defined in your DispatchAction class.
  1. Handling the Actions:
    • When a user clicks on a link or button, the corresponding action method in your DispatchAction class will be invoked based on the method parameter specified in the URL.
    • The action method can perform the necessary processing logic and return an ActionForward to navigate to a specific view.

What is meant by Custom Tags?

Custom tags, also known as custom tag libraries or custom JSP tags, are a powerful feature of JavaServer Pages (JSP) that allow developers to create their own reusable components or functionalities that can be easily embedded into JSP pages. Custom tags enhance the modularity and maintainability of web applications by abstracting complex or repetitive code into higher-level tags, promoting cleaner and more organized code.

In JSP, there are two main types of custom tags:

  1. Custom Action Tags:
    • Custom action tags are implemented using Java classes known as tag handlers. These tag handlers extend the javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.TagSupport class or implement the javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.SimpleTag interface.
    • Custom action tags provide more control and flexibility as they can generate dynamic content and interact directly with the JSP page’s output.
    • Example use cases for custom action tags include form input validation, generating dynamic HTML components, and encapsulating complex business logic.
  2. Custom Simple Tags:
    • Custom simple tags are a more streamlined approach for creating custom tags. They implement the javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.SimpleTag interface and focus on generating content within the JSP output stream.
    • Simple tags are typically used for simple tasks like formatting data, looping, or conditionally rendering content.
    • They provide a lighter-weight mechanism compared to custom action tags, and they are well-suited for scenarios where you don’t need full control over the JSP output.

Benefits of Custom Tags:

  • Reusability: Custom tags allow developers to encapsulate complex or repetitive code into reusable components, making it easier to maintain and modify.
  • Abstraction: They provide a way to abstract away low-level implementation details, promoting a higher level of abstraction in your JSP pages.
  • Modularity: Custom tags help in breaking down the page logic into smaller, more manageable parts, leading to modular and maintainable code.
  • Separation of Concerns: Custom tags contribute to separating business logic from presentation, adhering to the principles of the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture.
  • Consistency: Custom tags promote consistent code usage and formatting throughout the application.
  • Code Organization: Custom tags contribute to cleaner, more organized JSP code by reducing inline scripting and complex expressions.

Experienced Interview Questions

Mention the steps for combining Velocity templates and Struts.

Combining Velocity templates and Struts (Struts 1) involves integrating the Velocity template engine with the Struts framework to create dynamic and flexible views for your web application. Velocity allows you to separate the presentation layer from the business logic, enhancing modularity and maintainability. Here are the steps to combine Velocity templates and Struts:

  1. Add Velocity Jar Files:
    • Download the Velocity template engine JAR files and include them in your project’s classpath. You’ll need at least velocity.jar and its dependencies.
  2. Configure Velocity Settings:
    • In your struts-config.xml or a separate configuration file, configure Velocity settings using the tag. This includes specifying the location of your Velocity templates, resource loader settings, and any additional configurations.
  3. Create Velocity Templates:
    • Create your Velocity templates (usually with .vm extension) in the specified location. These templates define the structure and layout of your views.
    • Use Velocity placeholders and directives to insert dynamic data and logic. For example, ${variable} is used to display variables, and #foreach is used for looping.
  4. Create Action Classes:
    • Create your Struts Action classes that handle the business logic and data retrieval.
    • In the Action class, set attributes that you want to display in the Velocity templates using the request.setAttribute() method.
  5. Map Action to Template:
    • In your struts-config.xml, define Action mappings that associate Action classes with Velocity templates.
    • Specify the type attribute as org.apache.struts.action.VelocityTilesAction and the template attribute as the path to your Velocity template.
XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<action path="/myAction" type="org.apache.struts.action.VelocityTilesAction" name="myForm" scope="request">
    <forward name="success" path="/WEB-INF/templates/myTemplate.vm" />
  1. Accessing Data in Velocity Templates:
    • In your Velocity template, you can access the data set in the Action through the ${requestScope} object. For example, ${requestScope.myData} would access the myData attribute set in the Action.
  2. Using Velocity Directives:
    • Use Velocity directives to implement control structures like loops and conditionals within your templates.
  3. Integrate Velocity with Struts Tags:
    • You can still use Struts tags in your Velocity templates to generate HTML and interact with form data.

How can you show validation errors on the JSP page?

To display validation errors on a JSP page in Struts (Struts 1), you can use the tag. This tag automatically renders any error messages associated with the form fields that have failed validation. Here’s how you can show validation errors on a JSP page:

  1. Add Tag:
    • In your JSP page, add the tag for each form field that you want to display validation errors for. Place this tag where you want the error messages to appear.
  1. Binding Error Messages:
    • In your Action class, after form validation, if errors are detected, you can add error messages to the ActionErrors object and save them in the request scope using saveErrors() method.
public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
        throws Exception {
    // Perform form validation
    ActionErrors errors = new ActionErrors();

    if (/* validation condition */) {
        errors.add("username", new ActionMessage("error.username.required"));

    // More validation and error handling

    // Save errors in request scope
    saveErrors(request, errors);

    return mapping.findForward("input");
  1. Error Message Resource Bundles:
    • Make sure you have resource bundle properties that define the error messages. These properties should be named according to the specified keys in the ActionMessage constructors.
  2. Display on JSP:
    • When the form is submitted and validation fails, the tag will automatically render the error messages associated with the form fields.

Name the different actions found in Struts.

In the context of the Struts framework (Struts 1), there are several different types of actions that serve various purposes in handling user requests and processing business logic. Here are the main types of actions found in Struts:

  1. Action Classes:
    • Regular action classes that handle specific actions or operations requested by users.
    • These classes typically extend org.apache.struts.action.Action or related classes.
  2. DispatchAction:
    • A specialized action class that allows you to group related actions into a single class.
    • Different methods within the class handle different actions based on a “method” parameter specified in the request.
  3. LookupDispatchAction:
    • An extension of DispatchAction that uses a parameter to determine which method to call.
    • It uses a mapping of parameter values to method names for dispatching.
  4. MappingDispatchAction:
    • An extension of DispatchAction that uses a parameter to determine which method to call.
    • It uses a mapping of parameter values to method names, similar to LookupDispatchAction.
  5. SwitchAction:
    • An action class that allows you to map different actions using a configuration file.
    • Actions are defined in a properties file, and the class retrieves the action to execute based on the requested action key.
  6. ForwardAction:
    • An action class that forwards the control to another ActionForward.
    • Used to centralize navigation logic by defining forward paths in configuration.
  7. IncludeAction:
    • An action class that includes another action’s output within the current response.
    • Useful for including the output of other actions in the current JSP.
  8. ExceptionHandlingAction:
    • An action class that provides a way to handle exceptions globally for a set of actions.
    • It allows you to define custom error handling logic for certain exceptions.
  9. DelegatingActionProxy:
    • An internal action class that is used by the DispatchAction and related classes to delegate actions.
  10. GlobalsAction:
    • An internal action class that provides access to the ActionServlet’s internal data structures.

What is meant by LookupDispatchAction?

In the Struts framework (Struts 1), LookupDispatchAction is a specialized type of action class that allows you to group related actions into a single class and determine the specific action method to invoke based on a parameter value. This parameter value acts as a “lookup key” that helps in dispatching the appropriate method for processing the user’s request.

Here’s how LookupDispatchAction works:

  1. Creating the LookupDispatchAction Class:
    • To use LookupDispatchAction, you create a Java class that extends org.apache.struts.actions.LookupDispatchAction.
public class MyLookupDispatchAction extends LookupDispatchAction {

    public ActionForward edit(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                              HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {
        // Logic for editing
        return mapping.findForward("editSuccess");

    public ActionForward delete(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form,
                                HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {
        // Logic for deleting
        return mapping.findForward("deleteSuccess");

    // ... Define more action methods as needed
  1. Configuring the Action Mapping:
    • In your struts-config.xml configuration file, define an Action mapping for your LookupDispatchAction class.
    • Specify the parameter that will be used for method dispatching. This parameter is typically received from the request and indicates the specific action to be performed.
XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<action path="/myLookupAction" type="com.example.MyLookupDispatchAction" name="myForm" scope="request">
    <parameter name="method" value="operation" />
    <forward name="editSuccess" path="/editSuccess.jsp" />
    <forward name="deleteSuccess" path="/deleteSuccess.jsp" />
  1. Using the Lookup Parameter:
    • In your JSP page or wherever you’re sending the request, include the parameter with the appropriate value to indicate the desired action.
  1. Action Dispatching:
    • When a user clicks on a link with the specified parameter value, the corresponding action method in your LookupDispatchAction class will be invoked.
    • The method’s logic will execute, and then you can forward to the appropriate view using ActionForward.

Name the different libraries for Struts tags.

In Struts (Struts 1), there are several tag libraries available for building the user interface of web applications. These tag libraries provide convenient ways to generate HTML and interact with form data. Here are the main tag libraries used for Struts tags:

  1. Struts HTML Tags ():
    • This tag library is used to generate HTML form elements, such as text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, and more.
    • Example tags: , , , ,
  2. Struts Bean Tags ():
    • This tag library is used to display properties of JavaBeans on the JSP page.
    • Example tags: ,
  3. Struts Logic Tags ():
    • This tag library provides conditional and iterative logic for controlling the flow of the page.
    • Example tags: , , ,
  4. Struts Nested Tags ():
    • This tag library is used to iterate over collections or arrays, similar to , but with enhanced capabilities.
    • Example tags: ,
  5. Struts Tiles Tags ():
    • This tag library is used to work with the Tiles framework, which allows you to create reusable layouts and templates.
    • Example tags: ,
  6. Struts Template Tags ():
    • This tag library is used to work with templates and customize the presentation of data.
    • Example tags: ,

These tag libraries provide a higher-level and more structured way to generate HTML and implement logic in your JSP pages. They enhance code readability, modularity, and maintainability by separating concerns and promoting the use of standard, predefined tags for common tasks.

What is Custom Type Converter in Struts2?

In Struts 2, a custom type converter is a component that allows you to convert values between Java objects and their corresponding string representations. This is particularly useful when dealing with form data, where user inputs are sent as strings but need to be converted into appropriate Java types before being processed by your application. Custom type converters provide a way to handle conversions for non-standard or complex data types that aren’t covered by the built-in type converters.

Here’s how custom type converters work in Struts 2:

  1. Implement the TypeConverter Interface:
    • To create a custom type converter, you need to implement the TypeConverter interface from the org.apache.struts2.util package.
  2. Override the Conversion Methods:
    • The TypeConverter interface has two main methods that you need to override: convertFromString() and convertToString().
    • In the convertFromString() method, you define how to convert a string value from the form submission into the desired Java object.
    • In the convertToString() method, you define how to convert a Java object back into its string representation for display in the form.
public class CustomTypeConverter implements TypeConverter {

    public Object convertFromString(Map context, String[] values, Class toClass) {
        // Convert from string to Java object
        // Example implementation for converting a custom object:
        CustomObject customObj = new CustomObject();
        return customObj;

    public String convertToString(Map context, Object o) {
        // Convert from Java object to string
        // Example implementation for converting a custom object:
        if (o instanceof CustomObject) {
            return ((CustomObject) o).getProperty();
        return null;
  1. Register the Custom Type Converter:
    • Once you’ve implemented your custom type converter, you need to register it with the Struts 2 framework.
    • This is typically done in the struts.xml configuration file using the element.
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<constant name="struts.conversion.classLoader" value="your.package.CustomTypeConverter" />
  1. Use the Custom Type Converter:
    • In your Struts 2 action class, define a property that requires custom conversion and use the @Conversion annotation to specify the custom type converter.
public class MyAction extends ActionSupport {

    @Conversion(converter = "your.package.CustomTypeConverter")
    private CustomObject customObj;

    // Getter and setter for customObj

How can we write our own interceptor and map it for action?

In Struts 2, creating your own interceptor and mapping it to an action involves several steps to define the interceptor class, configure it in the struts.xml configuration file, and associate it with specific actions. Interceptors allow you to perform pre-processing and post-processing tasks on actions, providing a way to implement cross-cutting concerns such as logging, authentication, validation, and more.

Here’s how you can write your own interceptor and map it to an action in Struts 2:

  1. Create the Interceptor Class:
    • Create a Java class that implements the Interceptor interface from the com.opensymphony.xwork2 package.
    • Implement the init(), destroy(), and intercept() methods.
package com.example.interceptors;

import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionInvocation;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.Interceptor;

public class MyCustomInterceptor implements Interceptor {

    public void init() {
        // Initialization code

    public void destroy() {
        // Cleanup code

    public String intercept(ActionInvocation invocation) throws Exception {
        // Pre-processing logic

        // Invoke the next interceptor or action
        String result = invocation.invoke();

        // Post-processing logic

        return result;
  1. Configure the Interceptor in struts.xml:
    • In your struts.xml configuration file, define the custom interceptor by specifying its name, class, and optional parameters.
XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
    <interceptor name="myCustomInterceptor" class="com.example.interceptors.MyCustomInterceptor" />
  1. Map the Interceptor to an Action:
    • After defining the interceptor, you need to map it to one or more actions using the element.
XML /success.jsp ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<action name="myAction" class="com.example.actions.MyAction">
    <interceptor-ref name="myCustomInterceptor" />
    <result name="success">/success.jspresult>
  1. Run Your Application:
    • Now, when the myAction is invoked, the MyCustomInterceptor will be executed before and after the action’s execution.

How can we get Servlet API Request, Response, HttpSession, etc., objects in action classes?

In Struts 2, you can access the Servlet API objects such as HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse, HttpSession, and more in your action classes through the use of various techniques. Here’s how you can obtain these objects:

Using ServletActionContext: Struts 2 provides the ServletActionContext class that allows you to access the Servlet API objects from anywhere within your action classes. This is a common approach to accessing these objects.

import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;

public class MyAction {
    public String execute() {
        HttpServletRequest request = ServletActionContext.getRequest();
        HttpServletResponse response = ServletActionContext.getResponse();
        HttpSession session = request.getSession();
        // Your logic here
        return "success";

Implementing the ServletRequestAware, ServletResponseAware, and SessionAware Interfaces: Struts 2 provides these interfaces that you can implement in your action class to receive the corresponding objects directly as method parameters

import org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletRequestAware;
import org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletResponseAware;
import org.apache.struts2.interceptor.SessionAware;

public class MyAction implements ServletRequestAware, ServletResponseAware, SessionAware {
    private HttpServletRequest request;
    private HttpServletResponse response;
    private Map<String, Object> session;
    public void setServletRequest(HttpServletRequest request) {
        this.request = request;
    public void setServletResponse(HttpServletResponse response) {
        this.response = response;
    public void setSession(Map<String, Object> session) {
        this.session = session;
    public String execute() {
        // Use request, response, and session objects here
        return "success";

What is the use of the execAndWait interceptor?

The execAndWait interceptor in Struts 2 is used to handle long-running actions or tasks that might cause the user interface to freeze or become unresponsive while waiting for the action to complete. It provides a mechanism to execute the action asynchronously and display a waiting page to the user during the execution.

When you apply the execAndWait interceptor to an action, it does the following:

  1. Execute the Action Asynchronously: The interceptor initiates the execution of the action in a separate thread, allowing the main thread to return immediately and continue processing other tasks.
  2. Display a Waiting Page: While the action is executing, the interceptor displays a waiting page to the user. This prevents the user interface from freezing or becoming unresponsive. The waiting page typically includes a loading animation or message.
  3. Polling Mechanism: The waiting page automatically checks the status of the background action at regular intervals (polling). Once the background action is completed, the waiting page is replaced with the result page.

The execAndWait interceptor helps improve the user experience by ensuring that the application remains responsive during time-consuming operations. It’s especially useful when dealing with tasks like file uploads, complex computations, or external service calls that might take a significant amount of time to complete.

To use the execAndWait interceptor, you need to configure it in your struts.xml configuration file and apply it to the specific action for which you want to provide asynchronous execution and a waiting page.

Here’s an example of how to configure the execAndWait interceptor in struts.xml:

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    <interceptor name="execAndWait" class="org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ExecAndWaitInterceptor" />

And then apply it to your action:

XML resultPage.jsp waitPage.jsp ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
<action name="longRunningAction" class="com.example.LongRunningAction">
    <interceptor-ref name="defaultStack" />
    <interceptor-ref name="execAndWait" />
    <result name="success">resultPage.jspresult>
    <result name="wait">waitPage.jspresult>

How can we integrate log4j in the Struts2 application?

Integrating Log4j into a Struts 2 application involves configuring the Log4j framework to manage logging within your application. Log4j is a popular logging library that provides flexible and customizable logging capabilities. Here’s how you can integrate Log4j into your Struts 2 application:

Add Log4j Library: Ensure that the Log4j library is included in your project’s classpath. You can download the Log4j JAR files from the Apache Log4j website and place them in your project’s WEB-INF/lib directory.

Create Log4j Configuration File: Create a Log4j configuration file (e.g., log4j.xml or where you define the logging behavior for different loggers and appenders. This file specifies where log messages should be written and how they should be formatted.

Configure Log4j in Web.xml: In your web.xml file, configure Log4j as a listener. Add the following lines to the web.


If you’re using Servlet 3.0 or later, you can also use the following configuration instead:


Place Configuration File: Place your Log4j configuration file (e.g., log4j.xml or in the WEB-INF directory of your application.

Use Loggers in Your Code: In your Struts 2 action classes, services, or other components, use Log4j loggers to log messages. Create a logger instance and use its methods (e.g., debug, info, error, etc.) to log messages with different log levels.

Here’s a simple example of using Log4j in a Struts 2 action class:

import org.apache.log4j.Logger;

public class MyAction extends ActionSupport {
    private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(MyAction.class);

    public String execute() {
        logger.debug("Debug message");"Info message");
        logger.error("Error message");
        return SUCCESS;

Which class is the Front Controller in Struts2?

In Struts 2, the front controller is represented by the FilterDispatcher class. The FilterDispatcher serves as the central entry point for handling incoming requests in a Struts 2 application. It intercepts requests and manages the overall control flow of the application, including routing requests to the appropriate action classes, invoking their methods, and managing the rendering of views.

The FilterDispatcher class is implemented as a Java Servlet Filter. It is responsible for initializing the Struts 2 framework, processing incoming requests, and coordinating the execution of actions and results. The filter is typically configured in the application’s web.xml deployment descriptor.

Here’s a basic overview of how the FilterDispatcher class functions as the front controller in Struts 2:

  1. Request Intercepted: When an HTTP request is made to a Struts 2 application, the FilterDispatcher intercepts the request before it reaches the servlet or JSP.
  2. Initialization: The FilterDispatcher initializes the Struts 2 framework, setting up the necessary components, configurations, and interceptors.
  3. Action Mapping: The filter examines the request URL to determine the appropriate action to execute. It consults the struts.xml configuration file to find the relevant action mappings.
  4. Action Execution: The FilterDispatcher invokes the appropriate action class and method based on the action mapping. The action class performs the required business logic.
  5. Result Processing: After the action method execution, the FilterDispatcher processes the result configuration specified in the action mapping. This might involve rendering a JSP page, redirecting to a URL, or other actions.
  6. Response Sent: The FilterDispatcher sends the generated response back to the client’s web browser, completing the request-response cycle.

Name some useful annotations introduced in Struts2.

Struts 2 introduced several annotations that enhance the development process and provide a more intuitive way to configure actions, validation, and other aspects of your application. Here are some useful annotations introduced in Struts 2:

  1. @Action: Used to annotate action methods within an action class to define properties such as the action name, method, and result configurations. It simplifies the configuration of action mappings.
  2. @Result: Annotates action methods to specify result configurations directly on the method. This can simplify the struts.xml configuration by associating results with specific methods.
  3. @InterceptorRef: Specifies which interceptors should be applied to an action method. It allows you to declare interceptors directly on the action method.
  4. @Param: Annotates action properties to bind them to request parameters. It simplifies the process of populating action properties with data from the request.
  5. @VisitorFieldValidator: Used to define validation rules for nested properties of an action. It simplifies the configuration of validation for complex objects.
  6. @Validations: Annotates action methods to define validation rules for specific methods. This can help in specifying validation rules directly at the method level.
  7. @Conversion: Specifies a type converter for an action property, allowing you to customize the conversion process between string values and object types.
  8. @ConversionErrorFieldValidator: Configures validation error messages for property conversion failures. It allows you to define custom error messages for type conversion issues.
  9. @SkipValidation: Annotates action methods to skip validation for that specific method. It can be useful when certain methods don’t require validation.
  10. @Namespace: Specifies the namespace for an action class. It provides a convenient way to define the namespace directly on the action class.
  11. @AllowedMethods: Specifies the HTTP methods (GET, POST, etc.) that are allowed for an action method. It helps control which methods are accessible for a particular action.

Which interceptor is responsible for i18n support?

The i18n (internationalization) support in Struts 2 is primarily facilitated by the i18n interceptor. This interceptor is responsible for handling various aspects of internationalization and localization, such as setting the user’s preferred locale, retrieving localized messages, and formatting dates and numbers according to the user’s locale.

The i18n interceptor is an integral part of Struts 2 and plays a key role in ensuring that your application can adapt to different languages, regions, and cultures. It allows you to create applications that can provide a user experience tailored to the preferences of different users around the world.

By using the i18n interceptor, you can configure your application to dynamically load localized resource bundles, automatically translate text, and format content appropriately based on the user’s locale. This helps in creating a more user-friendly and globally accessible application.

Which interceptor is responsible for mapping request parameters to action class Java Bean properties?

The interceptor responsible for mapping request parameters to action class Java Bean properties in Struts 2 is the params interceptor.

The params interceptor is a core interceptor that plays a crucial role in the data-binding process. It automatically populates action class properties with values from incoming request parameters. This allows you to seamlessly transfer user input from the web form to the action class, making it easier to work with form data and perform actions based on user-submitted values.

When a request is made, the params interceptor examines the request parameters and maps them to corresponding properties of the action class. This process is a fundamental part of how Struts 2 handles user input and enables developers to access and process form data without manual parameter extraction and parsing.

By utilizing the params interceptor, you can greatly simplify the process of binding user input to action class properties, reducing the amount of boilerplate code and enhancing the maintainability of your Struts 2 application.

How can you integrate Spring framework with Struts 2, and what benefits does it provide?

Integrating the Spring framework with Struts 2 can provide several benefits, such as enhanced modularity, easier management of application components, and improved testability. The integration process involves configuring both frameworks to work together seamlessly. Here’s a step-by-step guide to integrating Spring with Struts 2 and the benefits it offers:

Step 1: Set Up Your Project

  1. Create a new Maven or Gradle project, or use an existing one.
  2. Include the required dependencies for Spring and Struts 2 in your project’s build configuration file (pom.xml for Maven).

Step 2: Configure the Spring ApplicationContext

  1. Create a Spring configuration XML file (e.g., spring-config.xml) to define Spring beans and their dependencies.
  2. Configure the Spring context in this XML file, specifying packages to scan for Spring components using the tag.

Step 3: Configure the Struts 2 Actions

  1. Create your Struts 2 action classes.
  2. Annotate the action classes with @Scope("prototype") to ensure that Spring creates a new instance for each request, enabling better control over their lifecycle.

Step 4: Enable Spring in Struts 2

  1. Create a listener class that implements ServletContextListener.
  2. In the contextInitialized method of the listener, create a Spring ApplicationContext using ContextLoaderListener and set it as a servlet context attribute.

Step 5: Inject Spring Beans into Struts 2 Actions

  1. In your Struts 2 action classes, use Spring’s @Autowired annotation to inject dependencies (Spring beans) into the actions.
  2. Make sure to use appropriate scopes for your Spring beans (e.g., Singleton, Prototype) based on your application’s needs.

Benefits of Integrating Spring with Struts 2:

  1. Modularity: By integrating Spring, you can manage application components (beans) separately and inject them where needed. This promotes a modular architecture, making your codebase cleaner and more maintainable.
  2. Dependency Injection (DI): Spring’s powerful DI mechanism allows you to inject dependencies into Struts 2 action classes. This makes your code more flexible, testable, and easier to maintain.
  3. Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP): Spring provides AOP capabilities, enabling you to apply cross-cutting concerns (such as logging, security, and transactions) to your Struts 2 actions in a declarative manner.
  4. Easy Unit Testing: With Spring integration, you can easily mock and test your Struts 2 actions by injecting mock dependencies during testing. This facilitates unit testing and improves code quality.
  5. Transaction Management: Spring’s transaction management features can be seamlessly integrated with Struts 2 actions, providing consistent and reliable transaction handling across the application.
  6. Centralized Configuration: Spring’s central configuration management simplifies the management of your application’s settings, reducing the complexity of XML configuration files in Struts 2.

How does Struts support data validation on the server side? Can you provide examples?

Struts, a popular Java web application framework, provides built-in support for server-side data validation through its validation framework. This framework helps you validate user input and ensure that it meets certain criteria before processing it on the server side. The validation process occurs after the user submits a form but before the data is processed by the application.

Here’s a general overview of how Struts supports data validation on the server side:

  1. Validation Configuration: Struts allows you to define validation rules in the form of XML files or through annotations. These rules specify what validation should be performed on each field of your form.
  2. Validation Framework: Struts has a validation framework that uses these rules to validate user input. It provides a set of pre-defined validation rules (e.g., required, email, integer, etc.) that you can use out of the box. Additionally, you can create custom validation rules to suit your specific requirements.
  3. Validation Messages: If a validation rule is not met, Struts automatically generates error messages. You can customize these error messages to provide meaningful feedback to the user.
  4. Integration with Action Classes: The validation process is often triggered within your Struts action classes when you handle form submissions. If validation fails, you can direct the user back to the form page with appropriate error messages.

Here’s an example of how you might perform data validation using Struts:

Suppose you have a simple registration form with fields for name, email, and age. You want to ensure that the name and email are not empty, and the age is a positive integer. Here’s how you might set up validation for this form:

  1. Define Validation Rules: Create a validation XML file (e.g., validation.xml) that defines the validation rules for your form fields.
XML How does Struts manage client-side validations and error handling? Your name is required. Your email is required. Invalid email format. 1 Age must be a positive integer. ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
DOCTYPE validators PUBLIC "-//OpenSymphony Group//XWork Validator 1.0.2//EN" "">
    <field name="name">
        <field-validator type="requiredstring">How does Struts manage client-side validations and error handling?
            <message>Your name is required.message>

    <field name="email">
        <field-validator type="requiredstring">
            <message>Your email is required.message>
        <field-validator type="email">
            <message>Invalid email format.message>

    <field name="age">
        <field-validator type="int">
            <param name="min">1param>
            <message>Age must be a positive integer.message>
  1. Integration with Action Class: In your Struts action class (e.g., RegisterAction), you would handle the form submission and trigger the validation process.
public class RegisterAction extends ActionSupport {
    private String name;
    private String email;
    private int age;

    // Getters and setters

    public String execute() {
        // Perform validation
        ActionContext context = ActionContext.getContext();
        ValidationAware va = (ValidationAware) context.getActionInvocation().getAction();
        // Execute validation and store error messages
        ValidationUtils.validate(this, va);

        if (va.hasErrors()) {
            return INPUT; // Validation failed, return to the form

        // Validation passed, process registration

        return SUCCESS;

In this example, the ValidationUtils.validate method triggers the validation process for the current action class instance. If validation fails, error messages will be automatically added to the action, which can be accessed in your JSP page to display appropriate feedback to the user.

What is the purpose of the struts-config.xml file? How is it used in a Struts application?

The struts-config.xml file is a key configuration file in a Struts 1.x application. It is used to define and configure various components of the application, such as ActionMappings, FormBeans, Global Forward settings, and more. This XML file essentially serves as a central configuration hub that helps tie together different parts of a Struts application and control its behavior.

Here’s an overview of the purpose of the struts-config.xml file and how it is used in a Struts application:

  1. Configuration of ActionMappings: ActionMappings define the association between URLs (requests) and the corresponding action classes that handle those requests. In the struts-config.xml file, you specify these mappings using the element. Each element defines a mapping between a logical name (used in URLs) and the associated action class.
  2. Configuration of FormBeans: FormBeans represent the form data that is exchanged between the client (browser) and the server (Action class). These beans are used to capture and validate user input. In the struts-config.xml file, you define these beans using the element. Each element specifies a form bean’s name, class, and optional properties.
  3. Configuration of Global Forwards: Global Forwards are named references to certain views or URLs that can be reused across multiple actions. These allow you to define common navigation destinations for successful or failed operations. In the struts-config.xml file, you can configure these global forwards using the element.
  4. Configuration of Exception Handling: You can specify exception handlers to define how the application should respond to different types of exceptions that might occur during processing. These handlers are configured using the element within the section of the struts-config.xml file.
  5. Configuring Plugins and Other Settings: The struts-config.xml file is also used to configure various plugins and settings specific to the Struts framework, like defining message resources, setting form validation rules, and more.

Here’s a simplified example of what a struts-config.xml file might look like:

XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>
xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
DOCTYPE struts-config PUBLIC "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 1.3//EN" "">
        <form-bean name="loginForm" type="com.example.LoginForm"/>

        <action path="/login" name="loginForm" type="com.example.LoginAction" scope="request">
            <forward name="success" path="/success.jsp"/>
            <forward name="failure" path="/failure.jsp"/>

        <forward name="home" path="/index.jsp"/>

In this example, the struts-config.xml file defines a form bean named “loginForm” and maps the /login URL to the LoginAction class. It also configures two forwards: “success” and “failure,” and a global forward “home.”

Describe Forward vs. Redirect in Struts.

In the context of a web application framework like Struts, both forward and redirect are navigation techniques used to direct the user to different resources (such as JSP pages) after processing a request. However, they have distinct behaviors and use cases:

  1. Forward: Forwarding (also known as server-side forwarding or internal forwarding) is a mechanism where the request is sent from one servlet or JSP to another resource on the server. The client’s URL remains unchanged, and the browser is not aware that it was redirected. In Struts, you typically use the ActionForward class to specify a forward. Characteristics of Forward:
  • The URL in the browser’s address bar doesn’t change.
  • The request and response objects are shared between the original and forwarded resources.
  • Typically used for dispatching requests to different parts of the application for further processing.
  • Useful for dividing the processing of a request across multiple components. Example Usage in Struts:
public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
    // Perform processing
    return mapping.findForward("success"); // Forward to a JSP named "success"
  1. Redirect: Redirection (also known as client-side forwarding) involves sending a special response to the client browser, instructing it to make a new request to a different URL. This results in a new browser request and a change in the URL displayed in the address bar. In Struts, you typically use the ActionRedirect class to specify a redirect. Characteristics of Redirect:
  • The URL in the browser’s address bar changes to the new URL.
  • The request and response objects are not shared between the original and redirected resources.
  • Typically used to send users to a different part of the application or to external URLs.
  • Useful for ensuring that a request is handled independently, preventing issues related to browser refresh or the back button. Example Usage in Struts:
public ActionForward execute(ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
    // Perform processing
    ActionRedirect redirect = new ActionRedirect(mapping.findForward("success")); // Create a redirect
    redirect.addParameter("message", "Success!"); // Add parameters if needed
    return redirect; // Redirect to a different action or URL

Discuss Internationalization (i18n) and Localization (l10n) in Struts.

Internationalization (i18n) and Localization (l10n) are important concepts in software development, including within the context of the Struts framework. They refer to the processes of designing and adapting software to be usable in multiple languages and regions. Struts provides features to facilitate i18n and l10n to make your web applications accessible to a global audience.

Internationalization (i18n):

Internationalization is the process of designing and developing an application in a way that allows it to be easily adapted for different languages, cultures, and regions without significant code changes. In Struts, internationalization involves separating the text and content of your application from the code by using resource bundles and properties files.

Key Concepts in i18n within Struts:

  1. Resource Bundles: Struts uses resource bundles to store localized text and content. A resource bundle is a collection of properties files, each containing translations for a specific language/locale.
  2. Message Resources: In Struts, message resources are used to manage localized text. By defining message resources in the struts-config.xml file, you can specify the base names of the resource bundles for different languages.
  3. Tag: Struts provides a tag that can be used in JSP pages to retrieve and display localized messages. This tag uses the configured message resources to look up the appropriate text for the user’s locale.

Localization (l10n):

Localization is the process of adapting an application for a specific language, culture, or region. It involves translating user interfaces, date/time formats, numbers, and other components to match the conventions of the target audience.

Key Concepts in l10n within Struts:

  1. Resource Bundle Files: For each supported language/locale, you create a separate properties file containing the translated text. These files are organized based on the base name specified in the struts-config.xml file.
  2. Locale Switching: Struts allows you to switch between locales dynamically based on user preferences. This can be done using a variety of techniques, including setting the locale in session attributes or via URL parameters.
  3. Formatting and Conversion: Struts also provides features for formatting and converting data based on the user’s locale. This includes date and time formatting, number formatting, and currency conversion.

Discuss Struts Plug-ins and Provide an Example.

In Struts, plugins are modular components that enhance the framework’s capabilities and allow developers to extend and customize its functionality. Plugins provide a way to add new features, behaviors, or integrations to a Struts application without directly modifying the core framework code. They promote modularity, maintainability, and reusability of code. Struts plugins can cover a wide range of functionalities, such as authentication, validation, logging, and more.

Here’s a general overview of Struts plugins and an example of a commonly used plugin:

Struts Plugin Features:

  1. Authentication and Authorization: Plugins can provide authentication and authorization mechanisms to secure your application. They can handle user authentication, access control, and role-based permissions.
  2. Validation: Plugins can extend Struts’ validation capabilities by adding custom validation rules, form validation, and error handling mechanisms.
  3. Logging and Monitoring: Plugins can integrate with logging frameworks to enhance application monitoring, error tracking, and performance analysis.
  4. RESTful Web Services: Some plugins facilitate the creation and consumption of RESTful web services, allowing you to expose and interact with resources via REST APIs.
  5. JSON and XML Processing: Plugins can offer support for JSON and XML data formats, making it easier to serialize and deserialize objects.
  6. Caching: Plugins can provide caching mechanisms to optimize data retrieval and improve application performance.

Example: Struts Tiles Plugin:

The Struts Tiles plugin is a widely used plugin that enhances the presentation layer of Struts applications by providing a layout and templating mechanism. It helps in creating consistent and reusable page layouts, simplifying the management of the user interface.

Features of Struts Tiles Plugin:

  1. Layout Templates: Tiles allows you to define layout templates that encapsulate common page structure, such as header, footer, and menu. This promotes consistent branding and UI elements across your application.
  2. Reusable Components: Tiles enables you to create reusable components (tiles) that can be inserted into different pages. This reduces code duplication and promotes modular design.
  3. Dynamic Composition: Tiles supports dynamic composition of pages by allowing you to assemble different components and templates based on the context of the request.
  4. Easy Integration: The plugin seamlessly integrates with Struts tags, making it easy to include tiles and templates in your JSP pages.

Example Usage:

Suppose you have a web application with multiple pages that share a common header and footer. Instead of duplicating the header and footer markup in each JSP page, you can define a layout template using Struts Tiles. This layout template includes placeholders for the header and footer. Then, you create individual tiles for the header and footer content. Finally, you use the Tiles tags to assemble the layout template and the individual tiles to create complete pages.

By utilizing the Struts Tiles plugin, you enhance code reusability, improve maintenance, and ensure a consistent user experience throughout your application.

Explain the Role of Message Resources in Struts.

Message resources play a crucial role in internationalization (i18n) and localization (l10n) within the Struts framework. They provide a mechanism for managing and displaying localized text, error messages, and other content in different languages and regions. Message resources ensure that your Struts application can be easily adapted to different locales without modifying the code, making it accessible to a global audience.

Here’s how message resources work and their role in Struts:

1. Managing Localized Text:
Message resources allow you to store localized text in external properties files. These files contain key-value pairs, where the keys are used to look up the corresponding localized messages. For each supported language/locale, you can have a separate properties file that contains translations for the same set of keys.

2. struts-config.xml Configuration:
In Struts, you configure message resources in the struts-config.xml configuration file. You specify the base names of the properties files for different locales. Struts automatically loads the appropriate properties file based on the user’s locale.

Example struts-config.xml Configuration:

XML ” style=”color:#D4D4D4;display:none” aria-label=”Copy” class=”code-block-pro-copy-button”>

    <message-resources parameter="com.example.messages"/>


In this example, the parameter attribute specifies the base name of the properties files without the locale suffix.

3. Retrieving Messages in JSP Pages:
In your JSP pages, you can use Struts tags to retrieve and display messages from the configured message resources. The tag is commonly used for this purpose. You provide the message key, and Struts looks up the corresponding message text based on the user’s locale.

4. Locale Switching:
Struts allows you to switch between locales dynamically. You can change the user’s locale based on their preferences or other factors. The appropriate message resources will be used to display messages in the selected locale.

5. Formatting and Conversions:
Message resources can also handle formatting and conversions based on the user’s locale. This includes formatting dates, numbers, currencies, and other data types to match the conventions of the selected locale.

MCQ Interview Questions

  1. What is Struts?
    a) A scripting language
    b) A web server
    c) A web application framework
    d) A database management system
    Answer: c
  2. Struts is based on which design pattern?
    a) Singleton
    b) MVC (Model-View-Controller)
    c) Factory
    d) Observer
    Answer: b
  3. What is the purpose of a Struts Action class?
    a) To handle user interface presentation
    b) To manage database connections
    c) To process user requests and interact with business logic
    d) To define HTML templates
    Answer: c
  4. What is the configuration file used for Struts called?
    a) web.xml
    b) struts-config.xml
    d) applicationContext.xml
    Answer: b
  5. Which XML element is used to define an Action mapping in struts-config.xml?

    Answer: a
  6. What is an ActionForm in Struts?
    a) A class for defining business logic
    b) A form that holds user input data
    c) A template for HTML layout
    d) An XML configuration file
    Answer: b
  7. What is the purpose of validation in Struts?
    a) To test the application’s performance
    b) To check the syntax of SQL queries
    c) To ensure that user input meets specific criteria
    d) To generate code automatically
    Answer: c
  8. Which tag is used to display error messages in a JSP page?
    Answer: d
  9. What is the role of the ActionForward class in Struts?
    a) To handle user authentication
    b) To define global forwards
    c) To process form data
    d) To manage navigation and forward requests to views
    Answer: d
  10. Which Struts class is responsible for controlling the overall flow of the application?
    a) ActionForm
    b) ActionMapping
    c) ActionServlet
    d) ActionForward
    Answer: c
  11. What is the purpose of the struts-html.tld tag library?
    a) It defines custom tags for working with HTML forms in Struts
    b) It provides tags for handling file uploads
    c) It creates dynamic charts and graphs
    d) It defines tags for handling database queries
    Answer: a
  12. Which annotation can be used to define validation rules for an ActionForm in Struts?
    a) @ValidationRule
    b) @Validate
    c) @Validation
    d) @ValidationRuleSet
    Answer: b
  13. What is the default scope of an ActionForm in Struts?
    a) request
    b) session
    c) application
    d) prototype
    Answer: a
  14. The element in struts-config.xml is used for:
    a) Defining URL patterns
    b) Specifying action paths
    c) Configuring interceptors
    d) Managing navigation rules
    Answer: d
  15. Which method should be overridden in an ActionForm class to reset its properties?
    a) resetForm()
    b) clearForm()
    c) reset()
    d) clear()
    Answer: c
  16. In Struts, how are messages for different languages stored?
    a) In the struts-config.xml file
    b) In the JSP pages
    c) In the Action classes
    d) In resource bundle properties files
    Answer: d
  17. What is the purpose of the ActionMessages class in Struts?
    a) To store user input data
    b) To manage navigation rules
    c) To store error and informational messages
    d) To define form validation rules
    Answer: c
  18. Which of the following is not a part of the Struts Request Processing Lifecycle?
    a) Initialization
    b) Action Mapping
    c) Data Persistence
    d) Render Response
    Answer: c
  19. What is the purpose of the ActionRedirect class in Struts?
    a) To create global forwards
    b) To handle browser redirection
    c) To manage database connections
    d) To define form validation rules
    Answer: b
  20. What does the term “ActionForm inheritance” refer to in Struts?
    a) Creating multiple instances of ActionForms
    b) Extending an ActionForm to create custom form classes
    c) Combining multiple ActionForms into a single form
    d) Sharing ActionForms across different Struts applications
    Answer: b
  21. Which tag is used to include a tile definition in a JSP page?
    Answer: a
  22. Which of the following is a benefit of using the Struts Tiles plugin?
    a) Enhanced security features
    b) Improved database connectivity
    c) Simplified navigation management
    d) Dynamic class loading
    Answer: c
  23. What is the role of the ActionForm class’s validate method?
    a) To validate the entire form
    b) To perform data conversion
    c) To handle custom business logic
    d) To handle exception handling
    Answer: a
  24. Which Struts class provides access to the application context in an Action class?
    a) ActionServlet
    b) ActionMapping
    c) ActionContext
    d) ActionForm
    Answer: a
  25. What does the Struts ActionForm scope determine?
    a) The visibility of the form in different JSP pages
    b) The session attributes associated with the form
    c) The number of form instances created
    d) The lifetime of the form’s data
    Answer: d
  26. Which of the following is a role of the Struts ActionErrors class?
    a) Handling database queries
    b) Displaying error messages to users
    c) Creating ActionForward instances
    d) Managing session attributes
    Answer: b
  27. What is the purpose of the
    tag in Struts?

    a) To define the layout of the HTML page
    b) To create a form element in HTML
    c) To display error messages
    d) To handle user authentication
    Answer: b
  28. The ActionMapping class in Struts is used to:
    a) Define custom tags for the view layer
    b) Map requests to Action classes
    c) Manage database connections
    d) Generate HTML templates
    Answer: b
  29. In Struts, which of the following can be used to customize the global exception handling process?
    b) tag
    c) ActionForward
    d) tag
    Answer: b
  30. What is the role of the tag in Struts?
    a) To handle exception handling
    b) To check if an object exists in the session
    c) To define a logical condition in the struts-config.xml file
    d) To manage global forwards
    Answer: b
  31. Which tag can be used to iterate over a collection in a JSP page?
    Answer: a
  32. The Struts ActionMapping can be accessed from within an Action class using:
    a) ActionContext
    b) ActionMapping.getContext()
    c) ActionMapping.getCurrentInstance()
    d) ActionMapping.findMapping()
    Answer: d
  33. What is the purpose of the struts-taglib.tld file in Struts?
    a) It defines custom tags for working with HTML forms
    b) It contains localization properties for different languages
    c) It provides definitions for Struts-specific tags used in JSP pages
    d) It stores session attributes
    Answer: c
  34. The ActionErrors class in Struts stores:
    a) Forward configurations
    b) Error messages and field-level error details
    c) Database connection information
    d) Action form data
    Answer: b
  35. In Struts, what is the purpose of the ActionForm‘s validate() method?
    a) To perform data validation
    b) To submit form data to the server
    c) To reset the form fields
    d) To create an instance of ActionErrors
    Answer: a
  36. What is the role of the DispatchAction class in Struts?
    a) To handle exception handling
    b) To manage global forwards
    c) To map multiple actions to a single Action class
    d) To handle form validation
    Answer: c
  37. What is the purpose of the ActionMessage class in Struts?
    a) To handle user authentication
    b) To manage navigation
    c) To store messages related to user actions
    d) To execute database queries
    Answer: c
  38. Which method of the ActionMapping class returns the forward path for a given forward name?
    a) getForwardPath(String forwardName)
    b) findForward(String forwardName)
    c) getPath(String forwardName)
    d) getForward(String forwardName)
    Answer: b
  39. The Struts DispatchAction class allows you to:
    a) Dispatch requests to multiple servlets
    b) Define custom exception handling
    c) Map multiple actions to a single Action class
    d) Redirect to external URLs
    Answer: c
  40. The Struts 1.x framework is best suited for:
    a) Building microservices
    b) Rapid web application development
    c) Creating complex database queries
    d) Real-time data processing
    Answer: b


In conclusion, Struts interview questions explore a range of topics related to the Java-based web framework. Candidates should grasp its architecture, components, validation, and best practices. Strong Struts understanding is vital for building efficient, scalable web applications. Success involves explaining MVC, Action classes, XML configuration, and integration. A blend of theory and hands-on experience prepares candidates to confidently tackle Struts interview questions.


What are Struts ActionForms?

Struts ActionForms are JavaBeans that encapsulate and validate user input data. They provide a way to bind HTML form fields to Java objects and perform server-side validation.

Explain the role of Struts configuration files?

Struts uses XML configuration files (struts-config.xml and validation.xml) to define mappings between URLs, Actions, and Views, as well as to configure form validation rules.

How does validation work in Struts?

Struts provides built-in validation through the validation.xml file, allowing developers to specify validation rules for ActionForm fields. It helps ensure data integrity and user input accuracy.

What is the purpose of the Struts Tag Library?

The Struts Tag Library provides custom JSP tags that simplify the process of generating HTML form elements, making it easier to integrate user input with Struts ActionForms.

How can Struts be integrated with other technologies?

Struts can be integrated with various technologies like Hibernate, Spring, and Tiles for enhanced functionality. This allows for efficient data handling, dependency injection, and improved UI templating.

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