CPP Tutorials

Classes and Objects in C++

Welcome, aspiring game developers! Today, we’ll embark on an exciting journey into the world of C++ programming, where we’ll uncover the magic of classes and objects. where we meet various characters with unique powers, C++ classes, and objects that let us create different entities with their own abilities and features.

In this article, we’ll explore why classes and objects are essential in programming, understand what they are, and learn how to use them to build fantastic and intricate programs. So get ready to unleash your creativity and bring your virtual worlds to life with C++ classes and objects!


In C++, classes and objects are like blueprints and real-life things. Classes help us define the structure and behavior of objects, which are the actual entities in our programs. They let us organize and group data and functions together, making our code easier to understand and manage. With classes and objects, we can create multiple instances of the same type, each with its own unique properties and actions.

It’s like having different characters in a game, all with their special abilities. Classes and objects make our code more organized, flexible, and fun to work with, just like building a world of possibilities!

What Are Classes and Objects in C++?

In C++, classes and objects are fundamental concepts that help organize and structure code in a more efficient and organized way. A class is like a blueprint or a template that defines the properties and behaviors that an object of that class will have. Think of a class as a formula for creating objects. Objects, on the other hand, are examples or realizations of these classes. They represent real-world entities and contain the data and functions defined in the class.

Here are a few key points to understand:

  • Class: It’s a user-defined data type that holds attributes (data members) and behaviors (member functions) related to a particular entity. For example, you can have a class called “Car” with attributes like color and speed, and behaviors like “start” and “stop.”
  • Object: An object is a specific instance of a class. Using the “Car” example, an object could be a particular car with a specific color and speed.
  • Data Members: These are variables within a class that store the characteristics of the object. In the “Car” class, color and speed would be data members.
  • Member Functions: These are functions defined within a class that specify the actions or behaviors the object can perform. For our “Car” class, “start” and “stop” could be member functions.
  • Encapsulation: This is the concept of bundling data and functions that operate on the data into a single unit, which is the class. It helps in data hiding and protects the integrity of the object.
  • Abstraction: Abstraction is about showing only the necessary details to the user while hiding the complex implementation. Users of a class don’t need to know how the functions work internally; they just need to know how to use them.
  • Inheritance: This is the ability of a class to inherit the properties and behaviors of another class. It promotes code reuse and allows you to create a new class based on an existing one.
  • Polymorphism: This is the ability to use the same interface (method name) for different data types or classes. It allows different classes to implement the same method in their own specific way.

Defining Class and Declaring Objects

In C++, when we want to create a blueprint for an object, we use something called a “class.” To define a class, we use the keyword “class” followed by the name we want to give to our class. Think of a class as a template for creating objects with similar characteristics. Inside the class, we can describe what the object should have and what it should be able to do.

This is done by listing its properties (also known as data members) and the actions it can perform (also known as member functions) within curly brackets. After we’ve described everything the class should have, we end the class definition with a semicolon.

In simpler terms:

  • A class is like a blueprint for making objects.
  • We use the keyword “class” followed by a name for our class.
  • Inside the class, we list what properties and actions our objects will have.
  • We use curly brackets to contain all this information.
  • The class definition ends with a semicolon.

Declaring Objects

Declaring objects in C++ is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming. It’s like creating instances of classes that represent real-world entities or concepts. Think of a class as a blueprint, and an object as a specific thing built from that blueprint.

Syntax for declaring an object:

class ClassName {
    // class members and functions

int main() {
    ClassName objectName; // Declaration of an object
    // ...
    return 0;

Suppose you have a class named Car that has properties like brand, model, and year, as well as functions like startEngine() and stopEngine(). You can then create objects representing different cars like this:

using namespace std;

class Car {
    string brand;
    string model;
    int year;

    void startEngine() {
        cout << "Engine started!" << endl;

    void stopEngine() {
        cout << "Engine stopped." << endl;

int main() {
    Car car1; // Creating an object of class Car
    car1.brand = "Toyota";
    car1.model = "Camry";
    car1.year = 2022;

    Car car2; // Creating another object
    car2.brand = "Ford";
    car2.model = "Mustang";
    car2.year = 2023;

    // Using member functions

    return 0;


Engine started!
Engine started!


  • We define a class as a blueprint with properties and functions.
  • Objects are instances created from a class.
  • In the example, a class named “Car” with properties and functions is defined.
  • Two objects, “car1” and “car2,” are created using the “Car” class.
  • Values are assigned to the properties of these objects.
  • Member functions of the objects are called, like “StartEngine()”.
  • Object declaration lets you model real-world entities effectively.
  • It’s a vital part of object-oriented programming.
  • Code becomes organized, reusable, and easier to understand.

Accessing Data Members

Accessing data members in programming means getting or changing the values stored inside the variables of an object or class. These values are like details about the object. In C++, each object has its own special information stored inside these variables.

To access these details, we use a dot. It’s like telling the computer, “Hey, give me the value of this detail from this object.” For example, if you have an object called “student” and you want to know the student’s name, you write “student.name“.

In C++, if you’re using a pointer to an object, you use an arrow “->” to access the details. It’s a way of saying, “Hey, pointer, show me the value of this detail.”

Being able to access these details helps you read or change the information about an object. Imagine if you have a class called “Car” and it has details like “brand,” “model,” and “year.” You can use these details to know the car’s brand, change its model, or update the year it was made.

Code Example:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Car {
    string brand;
    string model;
    int year;

int main() {
    Car myCar; // Creating a car object
    myCar.brand = "Toyota"; // Telling the computer the brand
    myCar.model = "Corolla"; // Telling the computer the model
    myCar.year = 2022; // Telling the computer the year

    cout << "My car is a " << myCar.year << " " << myCar.brand << " " << myCar.model << endl;
    return 0;


My car is a 2022 Toyota Corolla


  • We create an object named “myCar” from the class “Car.”
  • Using the dot (.) notation, we access the object’s details (brand, model, and year).
  • The accessed details are then used to display information about the car on the screen.


In C++, a constructor is a special member function within a class that gets automatically called when an object of the class is created. It’s responsible for initializing the object’s data members and preparing it for use. Constructors play a crucial role in setting up an object’s initial state, ensuring that it’s in a valid and usable condition from the moment it’s created.

Constructors are essential for a few reasons:

  1. Initialization: Constructors help initialize the object’s attributes or properties, ensuring that the object starts with appropriate values.
  2. Memory Allocation: If an object requires dynamic memory allocation (like creating an array of objects), the constructor can manage this allocation.
  3. Default Construction: If you create an object without providing explicit values, the default constructor will be called to initialize it.

Here’s a simple example to illustrate the concept:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class MyClass {
    // Constructor
    MyClass() {
        cout << "Constructor called!" << endl;

int main() {
    MyClass obj;  // Creating an object of MyClass
    return 0;

In this example, when the ‘obj‘ object of the ‘MyClass‘ class is created, the constructor is automatically invoked. The output will be:

Constructor called!

Constructors can also take parameters to allow for custom initialization. For instance, if a class needs specific values to be passed during object creation, you can define a parameterized constructor:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Student {
    string name;

    // Parameterized constructor
    Student(string n) {
        name = n;

int main() {
    Student student1("Coder");
    Student student2("Programmer");

    cout << student1.name << endl;
    cout << student2.name << endl;

    return 0;

In this case, the parameterized constructor assigns the provided name to the name attribute of the ‘Student‘ class when the objects are created. The output will be:



In C++, a destructor is a special member function of a class that is called when an object of that class goes out of scope or is explicitly deleted. Its primary role is to clean up any resources that the object might have acquired during its lifetime. These resources can include dynamic memory, file handles, network connections, or any other form of resource management.

Key Points about Destructors:

  1. Cleanup Operation: Destructors allow you to perform cleanup tasks before an object’s memory is released. This is crucial to prevent memory leaks or resource wastage.
  2. Automatic Invocation: Destructors are automatically invoked when an object goes out of scope, or when the ‘delete’ operator is used to free the memory allocated for that object.
  3. No Parameters: Unlike constructors, destructors don’t take any parameters and have the same name as the class preceded by a tilde (~).
  4. Single Destructor: A class can have only one destructor, and it cannot be overloaded with different parameter lists.

Example Code:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Student {
    Student() {
        cout << "Constructor called." << endl;

    ~Student() {
        cout << "Destructor called." << endl;

int main() {
    Student obj; // Object created
    cout << "Inside main function." << endl;
    return 0;


Constructor called.
Inside main function.
Destructor called.


  • When an object named ‘obj‘ of the class ‘Student‘ is created within the ‘main‘ function, the constructor is automatically called.
  • The constructor initializes the object and performs any necessary setup tasks. In this case, it prints “Constructor called.”
  • When the ‘obj‘ object goes out of scope as the ‘main‘ function ends, the destructor is automatically called.
  • The destructor is responsible for cleaning up any resources acquired by the object during its lifetime. In this example, it prints “Destructor called.”
  • Destructors ensure that proper cleanup happens before the object’s memory is released, preventing memory leaks or resource wastage.
  • This automatic invocation of constructors and destructors helps manage the object lifecycle effectively in C++.

A Problem to Solve

Problem Statement: Library Management System

Imagine you are designing a simple library management system. For the purpose of this exercise, you only need to keep track of books. Each book has the following attributes:

  1. Title
  2. Author
  3. ISBN number
  4. Total copies
  5. Available copies (copies that are not borrowed)

Create a C++ class named ‘Book‘ that captures the attributes mentioned above.


  1. Implement member functions to:
    • Borrow a book (decrease the available copies by 1).
    • Return a book (increase the available copies by 1).
    • Display the book details.
  2. Write a main() function to:
    • Create at least three book objects.
    • Allow a user to borrow and return books, as well as view book details.
    • Make sure you handle cases where a book cannot be borrowed because no available copies remain.


  • Use private member variables to store the book’s title, author, ISBN number, total copies, and available copies.
  • Implement public member functions to interact with the book’s data.
  • Ensure that the available copies never exceed the total copies or go below zero.

Expected Output:

When the program runs, it should allow the user to interact with the system, displaying relevant messages as they borrow, return, or view books.


  • You might want to have a constructor that initializes book attributes when a new book object is created.
  • The borrow function should check if there are available copies. If none, it should display an appropriate message.
  • The return function should ensure that the available copies do not exceed the total copies.

Difference Between Class and Object in C++

DefinitionA class is a blueprint or template for creating objects.An object is an instance of a class with its own data and methods.
PurposeClasses define the structure and behavior of objects.Objects are actual instances that can hold data and perform actions.
PropertiesClasses define attributes and methods that objects will have.Objects have values for attributes and can call methods defined in the class.
BlueprintClasses define the template for creating objects, specifying their attributes and behaviors.Objects are actual instances that have been created from a class.
Data AbstractionClasses can include both public and private data members.Objects can only access the public data members of their class.
Memory ConsumptionMemory is allocated for class members based on their definitions.Memory is allocated for object data members based on the class’s template.
InheritanceClasses can be inherited by other classes, forming a hierarchy.Objects themselves cannot be inherited or used in inheritance.
InstantiationClasses themselves cannot be instantiated.Objects are created by instantiating a class using constructors.
UsageClasses serve as blueprints to define attributes and methods.Objects are the instances that hold actual values and perform actions.
Exampleclass Car { ... };Car myCar;
Difference Between Class and Object in C++

The Pros and Cons of Using Classes and Objects

Pros of Using Classes and ObjectsCons of Using Classes and Objects
1. Modularity: Classes promote code organization and reusability.1. Complexity: Designing and managing classes can be complex, especially for large projects.
2. Data Abstraction: Classes hide internal details and only expose necessary functionality.2. Overhead: Using objects may introduce memory and performance overhead compared to simple data types.
3. Encapsulation: Objects encapsulate data and methods, protecting data integrity.3. Learning Curve: Understanding object-oriented concepts may be challenging for beginners.
4. Code Maintenance: Modifying or extending classes is easier and less error-prone.4. Overuse: Using excessive classes and objects can lead to over-engineering.
5. Polymorphism: Allows flexibility by using inheritance and virtual functions.5. Performance: In certain cases, direct manipulation of data might be faster than using objects.
The Pros and Cons of Using Classes and Objects

Key Takeaways

  • Entities with Properties: Classes define different entities, each with its own properties (attributes) and behaviors (methods).
  • Object Instances: Objects are instances of classes, representing specific entities in your program.
  • Code Reusability: Once a class is defined, you can create multiple objects of that class, promoting code reuse.
  • Encapsulation: Classes encapsulate data and methods, ensuring data privacy and better code organization.
  • Structured Programming: Classes and objects provide a structured way to model real-world scenarios and interactions in your code.


In conclusion, classes and objects are powerful tools in C++. By understanding how to use classes and objects, you can write better, more efficient programs. So keep practicing, and soon you’ll be a pro at using classes and objects!


  • What are classes and objects in C++?
    In C++, a class is like a blueprint for creating objects. An object is an instance of a class, and it can have properties and methods.
  • Why do we use classes and objects in C++?
    We use classes and objects in C++ to make our programs more structured and intuitive. They allow us to create entities with their own properties and methods.
  • How do we use classes and objects in C++?
    We use classes and objects in C++ by creating a class with properties and methods and then creating objects of that class. Each object can have different values for the properties, and it can use the methods defined in the class.
  • Can using classes and objects make code more confusing?
    Yes, if you use classes and objects incorrectly, it can lead to problems like increased complexity and decreased performance. It’s important to understand how classes and objects work and when to use them.
  • What are some examples of using classes and objects in C++?
    Some examples include creating a ‘Car’ class and creating objects of the ‘Car’ class, creating a ‘Student’ class and creating objects of the ‘Student’ class, and creating a ‘Circle’ class and creating objects of the ‘Circle’ class.

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  1. Thanks a lot very much for the high quality and results-oriented help. I won’t think twice to endorse your blog post to anybody who wants and needs support about this area.

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